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10 Cards in this Set

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Buddha

"The Enlightened one". An East Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth, family and social standing for an ascetic lifestyle to reach "enlightenment".

Bodhi Tree

Tree under which he meditated

Four Noble Truths

The core insights of Buddhism. Includes the Eightfold path.

Title: The life and death of the Buddha
Location: Gandhara, Pakistan
Time: 2nd century CE


Material: Schist rock



-Stone frieze
-Left to right in chronological order: (BESD) Buddha's birth at Lumbini, enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, first sermon at Sarnath, death at Kushingara




BUDDHA'S BIRTH
- Lumbini
-Queen Maya gives birth to Prince Siddharta, who emerges from her right hip.
-god Indra receiving him.
- Elegantly dressed ladies with peacock feathers suggest their opulent court life.




BUDDHA'S ENLIGHTENMENT
-Sitting beneath Bodhi Tree
-Soldiers and demons from evil Mara attempt to distract him from his quest for knowledge but are unsuccessful




BUDDHA'S SERMON


-Buddha teaching the Eightfold Path to nirvana in Deer Park at Sarnath
-Two deer and the Wheel of the Law beneath the figure of the Buddha

BUDDHA'S DEATH
-parinirvana
-Buddha lies dying among his devotees, some of whom wail in grief while one monk, who realizes the Buddha has been permanently released from suffering, remains tranquil in meditation.

Indus Civilization

-South Asian civilization that flourished from 2600 to 1500 BCE


-Most important sites: Mohenjo Daro and Harappa (present day Pakistan): fully developed cities, streets oriented to compass points, multi-storied houses of kiln baked bricks


-TRADED


- 1 OF THE WORLD'S SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS OF WATER SUPPLY AND SEWAGE: private bathing areas, toilet facilities, drainage


-no surviving bldg identified as temple or palace


-all objects found are small


THE GREAT BATH


-at the heart of Mohenjo Daro


-a complex of rooms with a brick pool in the center


-probs for ritual bathing

ROBED MALE FIGURE


-Mohenjo Daro


-Material: Steatite


-Half closed eyes, low forehead, closely trimmed beard, shaved upper lip


-Headband and armband with central circular emblem


-Trefoils decorate his robe


-Holes on each side of neck suggest he also wore a necklace of precious metal. Eyes, trefoils and circles originally held red paste and shell inlays.


-Identity and rank uncertain but elaborate costume and precious materials make clear that he was an elite individual.

NUDE MALE TORSO
-from Harappa


-red sandstone


-highly polished surface


-swelling curves of abdomen reveal interest in the fluid movement of the living body


-pulsating vigor + emphasis on sensuous surfaces= characteristic of S Asian sculpture

SEAL WITH SEATED FIGURE IN YOGIC POSTURE


-Steatite seals with incised designs = most common Indus art objects


-Similar to stamp seals of Mesopotamia


- Most Indus seals= animal/tiny narrative carved on face with still-untranslated script


-boss (circular knob) permitted insertion of string so the owner could wear/hang it
-seals secured trade goods


-most represented animals (always strict profile): HUMPED BULL, ELEPHANT, RHINOCEROS, TIGER




-Male figure w/ horned headdress, 3 faces and erect penis


-Among animals in profile


-Figures position suggest yogic posture = suggests imp meditative practice?