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50 Cards in this Set

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Renaissance

the “rebirth”of classical culture that occurred in Italy between c. 1350 and c. 1550; also, the earlier revivals of classical culture that occurred under Charlemagne and in the twelfth century

Jacob Burckhardt

Swiss historian and art critic who created the modern view of the Renaissance in his book; he also established the structure of the modern views of the Renaissance

Leon Battista Alberti

Florentine architect in the fifteenth century who proclaimed “Men can do all things if they will.”; his statement created a new ideal for the human personality and well being

Hanseatic League

was an economic and military alliance of northern European trading cities that established a monopoly on trade from the Baltic to the North Sea

House of Medici

was the greatest bank in Europe in the fifteenth century; they were smart in what to invest in and had many branches throughout Europe

Castiglione’s "Book of the Courtier"

first published in 1528, and was the fundamental handbook for centuries; the book described the three basic attributes of the perfect courtier and that is why it became so popular for the Europeans

Francisco Sforza

started out as a Milanese employee in 1447 who then turned on them to conquer the city and become the new duke; is goal was to create a highly centralized territorial state

Cosimo d’Medici

succeeded in dominating the city at a time when Florence was the center of cultural Renaissance in 1434 and when his grandson later took over; the family ruled from behind the scenes by finding allies for the oligarchy

The Papal States

the lay in central Italy where the Popes had most control over them, although three territories did become independent of papal authority; including Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara

Isabella d'Este

know for her intelligence and political wisdom, she and her husband had a court that was an important center of art and learning; called the “first lady of the world” she effectively ruled Mantua and won a reputation as a clever negotiator

Peace of Lodi and Balance of Power

it ended half a century of war in 1454 and started a peaceful era which would last for 40 years; Milan, Florence, and Naples vs. Venice and the Papacy created the balance of power

1527 Sack of Rome

King Charles I brought a temporary end to the Italian Wars; the Spanish dominated Italy

Machiavelli’s "The Prince"

gave concrete expression to the Renaissance preoccupation with political power; one of the most famous and widely read treatises on Western politics

Civic Humanism

an intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that saw Cicero, who was both an intellectual and a statesman, as the ideal and held that humanists should be involved in government and use their rhetorical training in the service of the state

Petrarch

often called father of Italian Renaissance humanism; he was guests to many kings and lords as he travelled to discover new things about the world and himself

Bruni’s "The New Cicero"

he waxed enthusiastic about the fusion of political action and literary creation in Cicero’s life; Cicero served as the inspiration for the Renaissance ideal that intellectuals had a duty to live an active life for their state

Lorenzo Valla

he wanted to restore Latin from the medieval Latin to its original beauty through his book "The Elegances of the Latin Language"; he only excepted the best kinds of the Latin language through the different stages and he got it to be back on track

Marcilio Ficino and Neoplatonism

was an academy leader who dedicated his life to translating Plato’s work and the exposition of the Platonic Philosophy known as Neoplatonism

Renaissance Hermeticism

an intellectual movement beginning in the fifteenth century that taught that divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature; included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy. The tradition continued into the seventeenth century and influenced many of the leading figures of the Scientific Revolution

Pico della Mirandola’s "Oration"

contains the common “nuggets of universal truth” that diligently combed through the works of many philosophers; contains statement that contained an unlimited amount of human potential

Liberal Studies

includes history, moral philosophy, eloquence, letters, poetry, mathematics, astronomy and music; purpose was to produce peoples that who would follow a path of virtue, wisdom, and would be able to convince others to do the same

Francesco Guicciardini

in the early sixteenth century, he believed that the purpose of writing was to teach lessons, but some lessons were not always self-evident; he developed skills to help analyze political situations thoroughly with the help of personal examples and document sources

Johannes Gutenberg

had an important role in bringing the process of developing printing between 1445 and 1450; his Bible was the first book to use this type of technology

Masaccio

thought to be the man who painted the first masterpiece of the Early Renaissance art (1401-1428 in Florence) because he started to use more realistic art that was used with figures and landscape; created three-dimensional human figures in his art pieces

Lorenzo the Magnificent

grandson to Cosimo and helped dominate the city of Florence during his lifetime (1469-1492), Florence became the center of the cultural Renaissance

Botticelli’s "Primavera"

reflects the writer’s strong interest in classical antiquity; the painting reflects a scene where people are dancing, gods and goddesses are watching, and cupid is shooting his arrows

Donatello’s "David"

at first, it stood in Medici Palace’s courtyard with an inscription on its base that praised Florentine’s heroism and virtue

Brunelleschi

an architect who drew inspiration from Roman antiquity monuments and built a dome for the unfinished Cathedral of Florence (the Duomo) which was built from 1420 to 1436 and had a 140-foot opening

High Renaissance

dominated by Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Michelangelo; Leonardo represents a transitional figure, Raphael attempted to achieve an ideal of beauty far surpassing human standards, and Michelangelo was fiercely driven by his desire to create

Leonardo da Vinci

he carried on the fifteenth-century experimental tradition by studying everything and even dissecting human bodies to see more clearly how nature worked; stressed the need to advance beyond such realism and go from a realistic portrayal to an ideal form; was known for "The Last Supper"

Raphael

at twenty-five, he already was considered one of Italy’s best painters and always attempted to achieve and ideal beauty far surpassing human standards; was known for frescoes in the Vatican Palace and his "School of Athens"

Michelangelo

an accomplished painter, sculptor, and architect, was another giant of the High Renaissance; fiercely driven by his desire to create, he worked with great passion on a remarkable number of projects; he is know for "David" and his work on the Sistine chapel ceiling that was completed in 1512

Sistine Chapel

is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City

Bramante and Saint Peter’s

he designed a small temple on this sight; the temple had columns, a dome, and a sanctuary

Giorgio Vasari

was an avid admirer of Italy’s great artists and wrote a series of brief biographies of them; known for "Lives of the Artists"

Northern Renaissance

artists took different approaches when it came to art. For example, in Italy, the human form became the primary vehicle of expression as Italian artists sought to master the technical skills that allowed them to portray humans in realistic settings

Jan van Eyck

was among the first to use oil paint, a medium that enabled the artist to use a varied range of colors and create fine details during the Northern Renaissance in the fifteenth century

Albrecht Durer

was an artist from Nuremberg who greatly affected by the Italians and learned much from them during his life period; known for writing treatises on mastery of laws of perspective and Renaissance theories of proportion; the "Adoration of the Magi" is one of his pieces where he tries to integrate the northern artists ideas and minute details

Madrigals

was a poem set to music that was originated in the Italian courts in the fourteenth-century; usually twelve lines written with a theme of emotional or exotic love in a vernacular

New Monarchies

the governments of France, England, and Spain at the end of the fifteenth century, whose rulers succeeded in reestablishing or extending centralized royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting on the loyalty of all peoples living their territories

Louis XI the Spider and Henry VII

he secured a regular source of income by imposing a tax called the taille, but had a problem with the French nobility because he couldn’t repress them and they posed a threat to his independent state; this guy was the first Tudor king who worked to reduce internal dissension and establish a strong monarchical government

Ferdinand and Isabella

these two married in 1469 and a major step unifying the Iberian Kingdom, but this was the dynastic union of two rulers and not a political union; these two rulers worked to strengthen the royal control of government

Spanish Inquisition

was established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile

The Habsburgs

was a dynasty that many countries feared because they didn’t fight wars, but gained by dynastic marriages; they would leave the fighting to others

Ivan III

was a prince of a Russian state who annexed other Russian principalities and took advantage of dissension among the Mongols to throw off their yoke by 1480

Constantinople and 1453

was a powerful city in 1204 that ended and then the new dynasty started, called the Palaeologus dynasty, that ended in 1453; it was a very powerful city that weakened other areas severely

John Wycliffe and John Hus

both disliked the Christian church and ordered attacks on them; one of them led him to make a far ranging attack on papal authority and medieval Christian beliefs and practices and the other guy urged the elimination of the worldliness and corruption of the clergy and attacked excessive power of the papacy within the Catholic Church

Pius II’s "Execrabilis"

in 1460 he issued the papal bull, condemning appeals to a council over the head of a pope as heretical

Renaissance Popes

they pursued their interests in the Papal States and Italian politics, especially their use of intrigue and even bloodshed

Leo X

was Lorenzo de’ Medici’s son who was an archbishop at the age of eight, cardinal at the age of thirteen, and then pope at the age of thirty-seven; had many interests in the Renaissance cultures