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86 Cards in this Set

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defined as a psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior.people have certain needs that motivate them to perform specific behaviors for which they receive rewards that feed back and satisfy the original need
motivation
the payoff, such as money, a person receives from others for performing a particular task. External rewards; from pleasing others
extrinsic reward
the satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment, a person receives from performing the particular task itself. an internal rewards; the pay off comes from pleasing yourself
intrinsic reward
five reason why you as a manager will find knowledge of motivation importance.
1. join your organization
2 stay with your organization
3 show up for work at your organization
4 perform better for your organization
5 do extra for your organization
four perspectives on motivation are
1 content
2 process
3 job design
4 reinforcement
also known as need-based perspectives, are theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people.
content perspective
are defined as physiological or psychological deficiencies that arouse behavior
needs
which proposed that people are motivated by five levels of needs:
1 physiological
2 safety
3 love
4 esteem
5 self-actualization
Maslow hierarchy of needs theory
assumes that three basic needs influence behavior - existence, relatedness, and growth
Alderfer's ERG theory
held that if our higher-level needs are frustrated, we will then seek more intensely to fulfill our lower-level needs.
frustration-regression component
which states that three needs - achievement, affiliation, and power- are major motives determining people's behavior in the workplace.
McClelland acquired needs theory
two kind of power
_____ in the desire to dominate others, and involves manipulating people for one's own gratification.
____ expressed in the need to solve problems that further organizational goals.
personal and institutional
happy with accomplishment.
enjoy being in control of people and events
seek social approval
high need for achievement, power, and affiliation
which proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors - work satisfaction from motivating factors and work dissatisfaction from hygiene factors
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory
Why are my people dissatisfied? are factors associated with job dissatisfaction-such as salary, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policy-all of which affect the job context in which people work.
hygiene factors
what will make my people satisfied? or simply motivators, are factors associated with job satisfaction-such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement-all of which affect the job content or the rewards of the work performance.
motivating factors
are concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act-how employees choose behavior to meet their needs. try to understand why employees have different needs, what behaviors they select to satisfy them, and how they decide if their choices were successful.
process perspective
simply try to understand employee needs
need based perspective
focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others
Adams Equity Theory
what do you think you're putting into the job? their time, effort, training, experience, intelligence, creativity, seniority, status, and so on.
inputs
what do you think you're getting out of the jobs? rewards
outputs
how do you think your ratio of inputs and rewards compares with those of others? Fairness
comparison
three lesson to motivate employees
employee perceptions are what count
employee participation helps
having an appeal process helps
suggests that people are motivated by two things:
1 how much they want something
2 how likely they think they are to get it
Vroom expectancy theory
Will I be able to perform at the desired level on a task? is the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance.
Expectancy (Effort to performance expectancy)
What outcome will I receive if I perform at this level? is the expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired
instrumentality (performance to reward expectancy)
how much do I want the outcome? is value, the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward
Valence
Expectancy theory to motivate employees
what rewards do your employee value?
What are the job objectives and the performance level you desire?
Are the rewards linked to performance?
Do employees believe you will deliver the right rewards for the right performance?
suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable. Useful if only people understand and accept the goals.
Locke and Latham Goal-setting theory
defined as an objective that a person is trying to accomplish through his or her effort
goal
three elements of goal-setting theory
specific, challenging, achievable
is 1 the division of an organization's work among its employees and 2 the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance
Job design
Two different approaches to job design, one traditional, one modern, that can be taken in deciding how to design jobs.
fitting people to jobs - traditional
fitting jobs to people - modern
the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs
job simplification
based on the assumption that people are underutilized at work and that they want more variety, challenges, and responsibility
fitting jobs to people
consists of increasing the number of tasks in the job to increase variety and motivation.
job enlargement
consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement
job enrichment
consists of
1 five core job characteristics that affect
2 three critical psychological states of an employee that in turn affect
3 work outcomes-the employee's motivation, performance, and satisfaction
hackman and oldham job characteristics model
describes the extent to which a job requires a person to use wide range of different skills and abilities
skill variety
describes the extent to which a job requires a worker to perform all the task needed to complete the job from beginning to end.
task identity
describes the extent to which a job affects the lives of other people, whether inside or outside the organization
task significant
describes the extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them.
autonomy
describes the extent to which workers receive clear, direct information about how well they are performing the job?
feedback
three major steps to follow when applying the model
diagnose the work environment to see whether a problem exists. Job diagnostic survey
determine whether job redesign is appropriate.
Consider how to redesign the job.
the process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences
operant conditioning
states that behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated and behavior that results in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated
Thorndike's law of effect.
which attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
reinforcement theory
the use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior is called
behavior modification
is anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited.
Reinforcement
the use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior.
is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior.
describes the extent to which a job affects the lives of other people, whether inside or outside the organization
task significant
describes the extent to which a job allows an employee to make choices about scheduling different tasks and deciding how to perform them.
autonomy
describes the extent to which workers receive clear, direct information about how well they are performing the job?
feedback
three major steps to follow when applying the model
diagnose the work environment to see whether a problem exists. Job diagnostic survey
determine whether job redesign is appropriate.
Consider how to redesign the job.
the process of controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences
operant conditioning
states that behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated and behavior that results in unpleasant outcomes is not likely to be repeated
Thorndike's law of effect.
which attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
reinforcement theory
the use of reinforcement theory to change human behavior is called
behavior modification
is anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited.
Reinforcement
the use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior.
positive reinforcement
is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior. maintain his existing behavior
negative reinforcement
is the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. Weaken behavior
Extinction
is the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior. inhibit them.
punishment
Reward only desirable behavior
give rewards as soon as possible
be clear about what behavior is desired
have different rewards and recognize individual differences
positive reinforcement
punish only undesirable behavior
give reprimands or disciplinary actions as soon as possible
be clear about what behavior is undesirable
administer punishment in private
combine punishment and positive reinforcement
punishment
defined as a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organization, which influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort in his or er work
employee engagement.
1 rewards must be linked to performance and be measurable
2 must satisfy individual needs
3 the rewards must be agreed on by manager and employees
4 the rewards must be believable, and achievable by employees
characteristics of the best incentive compensation plans
base on pay on one's result
pay for performance (merit pay)
in which employees are paid according to how much output they produce
piece rate
in which sales representatives are paid a percentage of the earning the company made from their sales
sales commision
is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior. maintain his existing behavior
negative reinforcement
is the withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. Weaken behavior
Extinction
is the application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior. inhibit them.
punishment
Reward only desirable behavior
give rewards as soon as possible
be clear about what behavior is desired
have different rewards and recognize individual differences
positive reinforcement
punish only undesirable behavior
give reprimands or disciplinary actions as soon as possible
be clear about what behavior is undesirable
administer punishment in private
combine punishment and positive reinforcement
punishment
defined as a heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his or her organization, which influences him or her to exert greater discretionary effort in his or er work
employee engagement.
1 rewards must be linked to performance and be measurable
2 must satisfy individual needs
3 the rewards must be agreed on by manager and employees
4 the rewards must be believable, and achievable by employees
characteristics of the best incentive compensation plans
base on pay on one's result
pay for performance (merit pay)
in which employees are paid according to how much output they produce
piece rate
in which sales representatives are paid a percentage of the earning the company made from their sales
sales commission
are cash awards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives
bonuses
is the distribution to employees of a percentage of the company's profit
profit sharing
is the distribution of savings or "gains" to group of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity
Gainsharing
certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price.
stock options
ties employee pay to the number of job-relevant skills or academic degrees they earn.
pay for knowledge
nonmonetary ways of motivating employees
the need for work-life balance
the need to expand skills
the need to matter
Thoughtfulness
work-life benefit
surrounding
skill-building and educational opportunity
sabbatical