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91 Cards in this Set

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a. regulating / controlling peripheral structures and system




b. providing sensation of the internal / external environments




c. coordinating voluntary and involuntary activities

general functions if the nervous system

The CNS includes the ____________ and _______________.

brain




spinal cord



Which nervous system controls skeletal muscles?

somatic

Which nervous system controls smooth muscles of the visceral organs?

ANS

Which cells are the supporting cells of the nervous system? However these cells do not get involved in information processing.

neuroglia

a. secretion of CSF


b. BBB: isolation of neurons


c. Defense: phagocytosis


d. providing support of the neuron (myelin sheath formation)

functions of the neuroglia

Only the _____________ is responsible for information processing. NEUROGLIA IS NOT.

neuron

a. astrocytes




b. oligodendrocytes




c. ependymal cells




d. microglia



four types of neuroglia in the CNS

What are the two types of neuroglia in the PNS?

Schwann cells and satellite cells

a. maintaining BBB (blood-brain barrier)


b. guiding neuron development


c. repairing damaged tissue


d. controlling the interstitial environment surrounding neurons

Major functions of the ASTROCYTES

What do the oligodendrocytes do?

form MYELIN sheath around axon in the CNS

Cell that myelinated several parts of several axons

oligodendrocytes

Which cells for myelin sheets on the PNS

schwann cells

Myelinates a single axon

each schwann cell

___________________ increases the speed of the conduction of a nerve impulse

myelin

Damage to which cell would result in decreased speed of action potential?

oligodendrocytes

A disease in which myelin sheet is abnormal due to autoimmune antibodies = demyelination

multiple sclerosis

Which cells produce CSF (cerebral spinal fluid)?

ependymal cells

Which cells are small phagocytes?

microglia

Which cells are the largest and most numerous of the glia cells in the CNS?

astrocytes

Which cells have the least number of neuroglia in the CNS?

microglia

_________________ is the cytoplasm surrounding the nucleus of the neuron.

perikaryon

Aggregations of fixed and free ribosomes in neurons.

nissls bodies

An area that the axon connects to the soma (cell body).

hillock

The actual site of information processing in the nervous system...

axonal hillock

Branches that sometimes occur along the length of an axon.

collaterals

Terminal end of an axon that contains a series of fine extensions.

telodendria

Where are the neurotransmitters released from?

synaptic knobs to the synaptic cleft

A series of fine extensions at the axon terminal...

synaptic knobs


The site of intercellular communication between neurons.

synapse

Cellular materials move from axon terminal to the cell body to be degraded or recycled.




rabies, herpes, and polio viruses can travel to the CNS via this means.

retrograde transport

neuron in which dendrites and axon are continuous and the cell body (SOMA) lies OFF to one side.

uniploar neuron (sensory neuron for general senses)

neurons have ONE axon and ONE dendrite

bipolar neuron (sensory neuron for special senses)

i. neurons have several dendrites and ONE SINGLE axon




ii. multipolar neurons are the most common type of neuron in the nervous system

multipolar neurons (motor neurons)

Where is the axon of the unipolar neuron found?

dorsal root of the spinal cord

Where is the cell body of the unipolar neuron found?

dorsal root of the ganglion of the spinal cord

Where is the axon of the multipolar neuron found?

on the ventral root of the spinal cord

Where is the cell body of the motor neuron found?

on the anterior gray horn on the spinal cord

a. by diffusion of potassium out of the cell (easy)




b. by diffusion of sodium ions into the cell (difficult)




c. by an excess of negatively charges protein molecules in the interior of the cell membrane of the neuron (neurilemma)

the resting potential of a membrane of the neuron (neurilemma) is established by...

What are membrane channels that are always OPEN called?

PASSIVE channels or Leak channels

Which type of channels can OPEN or CLOSE in response to binding of particular substance with specific receptors?

chemically-gated channels (LIGAND-GATED CHANNELS)

A stimulus that opens the GATED CHANNELS produces a ___________________.

GRADED POTENTIAL

OPENING of chemically-gate SODIUM channel results in what?

depolarization

CLOSING of SODIUM channels and opening of POTASSIUM channels in the membrane of a neuron results in what?

repolarization

At the end-phase of an action potential, additional POTASSIUM IONA exit from the cell membrane of a neuron results in what?

hyperpolarization




(because the chemically-gated potassium channel remains open after repolarization)

a. chemical and electrical forces push SODIUMS into the cell




b. chemical forces tend to drive POTASSIUM ions out of the cells




c. potassium ions are attracted to negative charges inside the cell (electric gradient)

interactions between electrical and chemical gradient lead to establishment of a neuron's resting membrane

SODIUM IONS (Na+) ____________ the cell membrane




exit or enter

enter

POTASSIUM IONS (K+) ___________ the cell membrane




exit or enter

exit

CALCIUM IONS (Ca+) _____________ the cell membrane to trigger the releasing of neurotransmitter (such as acetylcholine or epinephrine/norepinephrine)




exit or enter

enter

Where can VOLTAGE-REGULATED SODIUM CHANNELS be found?

in the membrane that covers axons

The SODIUM-POTASSIUM exchange pump requires ____________ to operate.




The process involves in exchange 3 intracellular SODIUM IONS for 2 extracellular POTASSIUM IONS.

ATP

When cholinergic receptors are stimulated, SODIUM IONS ____________ the postsynaptic neuron.




enter or exit

enter

What contributes to maintaining the resting membrane potential (-70mV)

SODIUM-POTASSIUM exchange pump

Which principle states that all stimuli GREAT enough to bring the membrane to the THRESHOLD will produce INDENTICAL action potentials?

ALL-OR-NONE

____________ potential includes depolarization, depolarization and hyperpolarization.

graded

GRADED POTENTIAL ____________ spread across the membrane surface (local only). The potential becomes weaker and weaker and finally disappears (detrimental effect)




can or cannot

cannot

The refractory period would be _____________ if voltage sodium channels failed to become inactivated.




longer or shorter

longer

During which phase do local currents depolarize adjacent areas of membrane so that action potentials continue to be generated along the membrane...

continuous conduction

During which phase do action potential occur at SUCCESSIVE NODES along the length of the stimulated axon?

saltatory conduction

Neurons ____________ regenerate because of LACK OF CENTRIOLES.




can or cannot

cannot

a. presence or absence of myelin sheath (faster spend with myelin sheath)




b. length of axon (the shorter, the faster the speed)




c. diameter of the axon (the larger the axon, the faster the speed)

factors that influence the TIME (velocity) necessary for a nerve impulse

Which type of fiber is the largest, myelinated fiber, and therefore it conducts the greatest rate of impulse?

type A

Which type of fiber is responsible for relaying SENSORY information concerning touch, position and balance?

type A

Which ion is needed to initiate the release of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft of the NEURON?

calcium ion

______________ synapse is a synapse in which acetylcholine (Ach) is released at the synaptic cleft.

cholinergic

_______________ synapse is a synapse in which epinephrine or nor-epinephrine (e/ne) is released at the synaptic cleft.

adrenergic

The effect that a neurotransmitter has on the postsynaptic membrane depends on the ____________________________, not a nature or characteristic of the neurotransmitters.

characteristics of the receptors

__________________ or ______________ is usually and EXCITATORY neurotransmitter (EPSP).

nor-adrenaline epinephrine

_________________ may be and EXCITATORY or and INHIBITORY receptor depending on what kind of receptor at the synapse

acetylcholine

Resting membrane potential is _______________ in muscle fibers




lower or greater

greater

speed of conduction is ______________ in the muscle fibers




lower or greater

lower

action potentials last _________________ in the muscle fibers (long duration)




shorter or longer

longer

Muscle fibers ONLY conduct action potential via __________________ conduction.

continuous

What type of conduction do neurons use to conduct action potential?

both continuous and saltatory

The minimum amount of stimulus required to depolarize and excitable membrane and generate AP

threshold

The period of time which an excitable membrane CAN respond again, BUT ONLY if the stimulus is GREATER than the initial stimulus

relative refractory period

The period of time during which an excitable membrane CANNOT respond again, regardless the intensity of the stimulus

absolute refractory period

The action potential traveling along an axon is called what?

nerve impulse

EPSP's occur when sodium channels open, resulting in?





depolarization

IPSP's occur when potassium channels open, resulting in?

local hyperpolarization

___________________ occurs when a second EPSP arrives at a single synapse before the effects of the first have disappeared

temporal summation

_____________________ is the addition of stimuli arriving at DIFFERENT LOCATIONS on the same time to produce and AP

spatial summation

Neurons normally derive ATP solely through what?

Aerobic metabolism

a. synthesis of neurotransmitters


b. releasing of neurotransmitters


c. movement of material to and from SOMA via axoplasmic flow


d. recovery from an action potential


e. recycling of neurotransmitters


f. stimulating sodium-potassium pump

active neurons need ATP because ATP is used for these functions

deteriorating changes at the distal segment of an axon as a result of a break between it and the soma (cell body)

Wallerian degeneration

These cell participate in the repair of damages nerves by FORMING A CELLULAR TUBE OR CHANNEL that can direct the growth of new axons.

Schwann cells

________________ is a process in which the Nissl bodies break up into fine granular masses.

Chromatolysis

________________________ occurs when the release of SEROTONIN activates chemically gated CALCIUM channels in the presynaptic neuron membrane. The calcium channel opens longer. Therefore the postsynaptic neurons become more and more excited (EPSP).

presynaptic facilitation

_____________________ occurs when the release of GABA inactivates chemically gated CALCIUM channels open the postsynaptic neurons become more and more inhibited (IPSP).

pre-synaptic inhibition

a. glutamate and aspartate are excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS




b. GABA and glycine are inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS

several amino acids are neurotransmitters in the CNS

_________________ is different from other neurotransmitters because it is not synthesized in advance and packaged into synaptic vesicles. Rather, it is formed on demand and acts immediately.

nitric oxide