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165 Cards in this Set

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analgesic

pertaining to relieving pain; a medication that relieves pain

anastomosis

a surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to the other. anastomosis of blood vessels may be performed to bypass an occluded area and restore normal blood flow to the area.

aneurysm

localized dilation of a weakened area of the wall of an artery. the weakened area balloons out with every pulsation of the artery

aneurysmectomy

surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm

anomaly

deviation from normal; birth defect; for example, congenital anomaly

anorexia

lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. it is seen in individuals who are depressed, with the onset of fever and illness, with stomach disorders, or as a result of excessive intake of alcohol or drugs

aplastic

without development

arthralgia

joint pain

ascites

an abnormal collection of fluid within the peritoneal cavity (the peritoneum is the serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity). this fluid contains large amounts of protein and electrolytes. general abdominal swelling occurs with ascites

asystole

absence of contractions of the heart

atherosclerosis

a form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) characterized by fatty deposits building up within the inner layers of the walls of larger arteries

benign

noncancerous; not progressive

bruit

an abnormal sound or murmur heard with a stethoscope when listening to a carotid artery, organ, or gland: for example, during auscultation

cardiologist

one who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders of the heart

cardiology

the study of the heart

carditis

inflammation of the heart muscles

carotid endarterectomy

a surgical procedure performed to remove plaque buildup in the carotid arteries and facilitate blood flow; performed to reduce the risk of stroke caused by disruption of the blood flow

claudication

cramplike pains in the calves of the legs caused by poor circulation to the muscles of the legs commonly associated with artherosclerosis

coronary artery

one of a pair of arteries that branch from the aorta. the coronary arteries and their branches supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle (myocardium)

cusp

any one of the small flaps on the valves of the heart

dependent edema

a fluid accumulation in the tissues influenced by gravity; usually greater in the lower extremities than in tissue levels above the level of the heart

diastole

the period of relaxation of the heart, alternating with the contraction phase known as systole.

dysrythmia

abnormal rhythm

echocardiogram

the graphic outline or record of movements of structures of the heart produced by ultrasonography (ultrasound)

edema

the localized or generalized collection of fluid within the body tissues, causing the areas to swell

embolus

a clot or a part of a clot that has dislodged from another vessel and moved into a smaller vessel, possibly causing an obstruction to the flow of blood, an embolus may be solid, liquid, or gaseous

endocarditis

inflammation of the inner lining of the heart; caused by direct invasion of bacteria or other organisms and leading to deformity of the valve cusps. abnormal growths called vegetations are formed on or within the membrane

epicardium

the inner layer of the pericardium, which is the double-folded membrane that encloses the heart

hemostasis

stopping or controlling the flow of blood

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

Homan's sign

pain felt in the calf of the leg, or behind the knee, when the examiner is purposely dorsiflexing the foot of the patient. if the patient feels pain, it is called a positive Homan's sign indicating thrombophlebitis

hyperlipidemia

an excessive level of fats in the blood

hypertension

elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 135/85 mmHg; high BP; aka as arterial hypertension






1) essential


2) secondary


3) malignant

hypotension

low BP; less than normal BP reading

hypoxemia

insufficient oxygenation of arterial blood

infarction

a localized area of necrosis in tissue, a vessel, an organ, or a part resulting from lack of oxygen (anoxia) due to interrupted blood flow to the area

ischemia

decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ

lesion

a wound, injury, or any pathological change in body tissue

leukopenia

an abnormal decrease in number of WBCs to fewer than 5,000 cells per cubic millimeter; aka leukocytopenia

lipid

any of a group of fats or fatlike substances found in the blood. (examples are cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides)

lumen

a cavity or the channel within any organ or structure of the body; the space within an artery, vein, instestine, or tube

mediastinum

the area between the lungs in the chest cavity that contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchii

megaloblastic anemia

a form of anemia characterized by excessive production of immature large erythrocytes (RBCs), unable to carry on their normal function

myelodysplastic syndrome

a rare group of blood disorders that occur as a result of poorly formed or dysfunctional blood cells within the bone marrow; the bone marrow does not make enough healthy blood cells and there are abnormal (blast) cells in the blood and/or bone marrow

myocardium

the middle muscular layer of the heart

nocturia

urination at night

orthopnea

an abnormal condition in which a person sits up straight or stands up to breathe comfortably

pacemaker

the SA node of the heart located in the RA. it is responsible for initiating the heartbeat, influencing the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat. the cardiac pacemaker is an electric apparatus used for maintaining a normal heart rhythm by electrically stimulating the heart muscle to contract

palpable

detectable by touch

palpitation

a pounding or racing of the heart, associated with normal emotional responses or with heart disorders

pericardial

pertaining to the pericardium

pericardium

the double membranous sac that encloses the heart and the origins of the great blood vessels

petechiae

small, purplish, hemorrhagic spots on the skin; may be due to abnormality in the blood-clotting mechanism of the body

phlebitis

inflammation of a vien

pitting edema

a swelling, usually of the skin of the extremities, that when pressed firmly with a finger will maintain the dent produced by the finger

prophylactic

an agent that protects against disease

pulmonary artery

one of a pair of arteries that transports deoxygenated blood from the RV of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. the pulmonary arteries are the only arteries in the body to cary deoxygenated blood

pulmonary circulation

the circulation of deoxygenated blood from the RV of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation and back to the LA of the heart; that is, from the heart, to the lungs, back to the heart

pulmonary vein

one of 4 arge veins (2 from each lung) that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the LA of the heart. the pulmonary veins are the only veins in the body to carry oxygenated blood

SA node

sinoatrial node; pacemaker of the heart

septicemia

systemic infection in which pathogens are present in the circulating bloodstream, having spread from an infection in any part of the body

septum

a wall, or partition, that divides or separates two cavities. the interatrial septum sep the right and left atria, the atrioventricular septum sep the atria and ventricles, and the interventricular septum sep the right and left ventricles

serum sickness

a hypersensitivity reaction that may occur 2-3 weeks after administration of an antiserum. symptoms include fever, enlargement of the spleen, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain, and skin rash

Sydenham's chorea

a form of chorea (involuntary muscle twitching) associated with rheumatic fever, usually occurring in childhood

systemic circulation

the circulation of blood from the LV of the heart, throughout the body, and back to the RA of the heart. oxygenated blood leaves the LV of the heart and is distributed to the capillaries. deoxygenated blood is picked up from the capillaries and is transported back to the right atrium of the heart

systole

the contraction phase of the heartbeat forcing blood into the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. systole is marked by the first sound heard on auscultation, or the first pulse palpated, after the release of the blood pressure cuff (sphygmomanometer) *challenge word*

thrombosis

the formation or existence of a blood clot

vasocontriction

narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel

vegetation

an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve

aneurysm/o

aneursym

angi/o

vessel

arter/o , arteri/o

artery

arteriol/o

arteriole

arther/o

fatty

blast/o

embryonic stage of development

cardi/o , coron/o

heart

echo-

sound

electr/o

electrical, electricity

-emia

blood condition

endo-

within

-gram

record or picture

-graphy

process of recording

hem/o

blood

-penia

decrease in; deficiency

-stasis

stopping or controlling

ventricul/o

ventricle of the heart or brain

pallor

paleness

angina pectoris

severe pain and constriction about the heart, usually radiating to the left shoulder and down the left arm, creating a feeling of pressure in the anterior chest

cardiac tamponade

compression of the heart caused by the accumulation of blood or other fluid within the pericardial sac. the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity prevents the ventricle from adequately filling or pumping blood. a life-threatening emergency if untreated

cardiomyopathy

a disease of the heart muscle itself, primarily affecting the pumping ability of the heart. this noninflammatory disease of the heart results in enlargement of the heart (cardiomegaly) and dysfunction of the ventricles of the heart

congestive heart failure

condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness, and abdominal discomfort. edema in the lower portions of the body resulting from the flow of the blood through the vessels being slowed (venous stasis) and the outflow of blood from the left side of the heart is reduced. the pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that is no longer meets bodily needs; aka cardiac failure

coronary artery disease

the narrowing of the coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented




page 410-412

hypertensive heart disease

a result of long-term hypertension. the heart is affected because it must work against increased resistance due to increased pressure in the arteries

mitral valve prolapse

drooping of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular systole, resulting in incomplete closure of the valve mitral insufficiency

myocardial infarction

*challenge word*


heart attack: a condition caused by occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries. this life-threatening condition results when myocardial tissue is destroyed in areas of the heart that are deprived of an adequate blood supply due to the occluded vessels

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium may be caused by viral or bacterial infections or may be a result of systemic diseases such as rheumatic fever. this may also be caused by fungal infections, serum sickness, or a chemical agent

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium, the saclike membrane that covers the heart muscle. it may be acute or chronic

rheumatic fever

an inflammatory disease that may develop as a delayed reaction to insufficiently treated group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the upper respiratory tract

arteriosclerosis

an arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries, resulting in decreased blood supply, especially to the lower extremities and cerebrum

peripheral arterial occlusive disease

obstruction of the arteries in the extremities (predominantly the legs). the leading cause of this disease is atherosclerosis, which leads to narrowing of the lumen of the artery. the classic symptom is intermittent claudication, which is cramplike pain in the muscles brought on my exercise and relieved by rest

Raynaud's phenomenon

intermittent attacks of vasocontriction of the arterioles (causing pallor of the fingers or toes), followed by cyanosis and then redness before returning to normal color; initiated by exposure to cold or emotional disturbance

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with the formation of a thrombus (clot); usually occurs in an extremity, most frequently a leg

varicose veins

enlarged, superficial veins; a twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves

venous insufficiency

an abnormal circulatory condition characterized by decreased return of venous blood from the legs to the trunk of the body

coarctation of the aorta

a congenital heart defect characterized by a localized narrowing of the aorta, which results in increased BP in the upper extremities (area proximal to defect) and dec BP in the lower extremities (area distal to defect)

patent ductus arteriosus

an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth. this defect is seen primarily in premature infants

tetralogy of Fallot

a congenital heart anomaly that consists of 4 defects: pulmonary stenosis, interventricular septal defect, dextroposition (shifting to the right) of the aorta so that it receives blood from both ventricles, and hypertrophy of the RV; named for the french physician who first described the condition

transposition of the great vessels

a condition in which the two major arteries of the heart are reversed in position, which results in two noncommunicating circulatory systems

atrial flutter

condition in which the contractions of the atria become extremely rapid, at the rate of 250-350 bpm

fibrillation (atrial/ventricular)

atrial fibrillation is extremely rapid, incomplete contractions of the atria resulting in disorganized and uncoordinated twitching of the atria

heart block (AV)

an interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle

ventricular tachycardia

a condition in which the ventricles of the heart beat at a rate greater than 100 bpm; characterized by 3 or more consecutive premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). it is also known as "V-tach" (VT).

angiography

x-ray visualization of the internal anatomy of the heart and blood vessels after introducing a radiopaque substance (contrast medium) that promotes the imaging (makes them visible) of internal structures that are otherwise difficult to see on x-ray film. this substance is injected into an artery or a vein

cardiac catheterization

a diagnostic procedure in which a catheter (a hollow, flexible tube) is introduced into a large vein or artery (usually of an arm or a leg) and then threaded through the circulatory system to the heart. it is used to obtain detailed info about the structure and function of the heart chambers, valves, and the great vessels

cardiac enzymes test

performed on samples of blood obtained by venipuncture to determine the presence of damage to the myocardial muscle

computed axial tomography (CAT)

a diagnostic x-ray technique that uses ionizing radiation to produce a cross-sectional image of the body

echocardiography

a diagnostic procedure for studying the structure and motion of the heart. it is useful in evaluating structural and functional changes in a variety of heart disorders

electrocardiogram

a graphic record (visual representation) of the electrical action of the heart as reflected from various angles to the surface of the skin; known as EKG or ECG

event monitor

similar to the Holter monitor in that it also records the electrical activity of the heart while the patient goes about usual daily activities. a cardiac event monitor can be used for a longer period of time than a Holter monitor (usually a month).

exercise stress testing

a means of assessing cardiac function by subjecting the patient to carefully controlled amounts of physical stress

Holter monitoring

a small, portable monitoring device that makes prolonged electrocardiograph recordings on a portable tape recorder. the continuous EKG (ambulatory EKG) is recorded on a magnetic tape recording while the patient conducts normal daily activities

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

ICD is a small, lightweight, electronic device placed under the skin or muscle in either the chest or abdomen to monitor the heart's rhythm. if an abnormal rhythm occurs, the ICD helps return the heart to it's normal rhythm

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

involves the use of a strong magnetic field and radiofrequency waves to produce imaging that is valuable in providing images of the heart, large blood vessels, brain, and soft tissue

positron emission tomography (PET)

a computerized X-ray technique that uses radioactive substances to examine the blood flow and the metabolic activity of various body structures such as the heart and blood vessels. the patient is given doses of strong radioactive tracers by injection or inhalation. the radiation emitted is measured by the PET camera

serum lipid test

measures the amount of fatty substances in a sample of blood obtained by venipunture

thallium stress test

one of several nuclear stress tests, is a combination of exercise stress testing with thallium imaging (myocardial perfusion scan) to assess changes in coronary blood flow during exercise

A fib

atrial fibrillation

AMI

acute myocardial infarction

AS

aortic stenosis

ASD

atrial septal defect

ASHD

arteriosclerotic heart disease

AV

atrioventricular

BBB

bundle branch block

BP

blood pressure

CABG

coronary artery bypass graft

CAD

coronary artery disease

Cath

catherization

CC

cardiac catherization

CCU

coronary care unit

CHD

coronary heart disease

CHF

congestive heart failure

CPR

cardiopulmonary resuscitation

CVD

cardiovascular disease

DOE

dyspnea on exertion

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

ECG / EKG

electrocardiogram

ECHO

echocardiogram

HCVD

hypertensive cardiovascular disease

HDL

high-density lipoprotein

ICD

implantable cardioversion defibrillator

LDL

low-density lipoprotein

MI

myocardial infarction

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging

MS

mitral stenosis

MVP

mitral valve prolapse

PACs

premature atrial contractions

PAT

paroxysmal atrial tachycardia

PDA

patent ductus arteriosus

PET

positron emission tomography

PTCA

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

PVCs

premature ventricular contractions

SA

sinoatrial

V Fib

ventricular fibrillation

VSD

ventricular septal defect

VT, V tach.

ventricular tachycardia