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33 Cards in this Set

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Kurt Lewin - Cheater's Study (1927)
people are inconsistent
researchers took cheaters and gave the kids opportunities to cheat - found that some kids cheated and others did not
children were not consistently honest or dishonest
Harry Stack Sullivan
Interpersonal Psychiatry - approach to personality that focuses on the recurring social situations faced by an individual
said personality is tied to social situations - we can't have a personality separate from society, even when we're alone
Chumship
term by Harry Stack Sullivan - idea derived from sociological concept of the social self - preadolescent's chums serve as a social mirror for forming his or her identity
Sullivan said that peers or "chums" is important, without it a child is disadvantaged
social self
Mead's idea that who we are and how we think of ourselves arise from our interactions with those around us, having an identity in a social world
illusion of individuality
idea that a person has a single, fixed personality is an illusion
personality emerges as a combination of individual inclinations and the social situations
Henry Murray
Motivation and Goals
emphasized importance of needs and motivations as well as environmental presses
personological system
emphasizes the richness of the life of each person and the dynamic complex organism responding to a specific environment
systems
sets of dynamic influences with feedback
environmental presses
the push of the situations, directional forces on a person that arise from other people/events in the environment
thema
term Murray used to describe the combination of needs and presses typical for the individual
narrative approach
involves studying motivations through biographies in order to understand the full life context of the whole person
Walter Mischel
modern interactionist approaches
- early work dealt with cognitive and situational factors that influence behaviours like the delay of gratification in children
- Mischel's studies demonstrated that an individual's actions, are the result of both environmental constraints and internal, cognitive characteristics of the individual
delay of gratification
specific aspect of self-control that occurs when an individual choose to forgo an immediate reinforcer in order to wait for a later, better reinforcer
strategies
Walter Mischel's idea that individual differences in the meanings people give to stimuli and reinforcement that are learned during experiences with situations and their rewards
Mischel's 4 Personality Variables
competencies: person's abilities and knowledge
encoding strategies: schemas and mechanisms one uses to process and encode information
expectancies: a personality variable encompassing a person's outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies
plans: a personality variable encompassing our intentions for our actions
behavioural signatures
set of situation-behaviour relationships that are typical of an individual and that contribute to the apparent consistency of an individual's personality
attribution theories
theories that examine the ways in which individuals draw inferences about other people's behaviour - we often have biases and make errors when judging others
Zimbardo Stanford Prison Experiment
random participants (university students) split into 2 groups - prisoners and guards
found that situations are so powerful that they can override personality
aggregation
averaging of behaviours across situations (or over time), to improve the reliability of behaviour assessments
personal vs. social situations: the social self
social self is more prominent in certain people, or at certain times or situations
self-monitoring
paying attention to the reactions of other people
person high in self-monitoring
pay a lot of attention to people, more aware of social situations, less likely to behave inappropriately, may not be as authentic
person low in self-monitoring
less sensitive to reactions and expectations of others, more consistent in different situations, behaviour less influenced by others around
self-verification theory
we seek out situations that confirm what we already are, which makes our behaviour appear more similar
Avshalom Capsi
life-course approach, studied children and looked at different characteristics of these kids and changes
life-course approach
developed by Capsi, emphasizes that patterns of behaviour change as a function of age, culture, social groups, life events, etc., as well as because of internal drives, motives, and traits
cumulative continuity
tendency of personality to remain stable over time through consistency of interpretations, environments, and reactions
readiness
extent to which individuals are likely to respond appropriately in a given situation, as a function of their prior experiences with that situation
- each experience has its effects in the context of previous experiences, we are more affected by certain environments at certain times in our lives
circumplex model
arrangement of two basic dimensions of social interaction that shows the circular pattern of the combined characteristics
2 dimensions of circumplex model
affiliation dimension: hostile vs. friendly
assertiveness dimension: dominant vs. submissive
advantages of person-situation interactionist
emphasizes interpersonal influences
can draw on best aspects of other approaches
understands that we are different selves in different situations
often studies personality across time
disadvantages of person-situation interactionist
extreme positions can fail to take into account the complexity of the relationship b/w personality, behaviour, and situation
may overlook biological infleunces
difficult to define situations and to study the many complexities of interactions
person-situation interactionist's view of free will
free will exists to a limited degree