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224 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
meninges
three protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
plexus
a large, interlacing network of nerves.
dendrite
branching fiber that is the first part of a neuron to receive a nervous impulse.
myelin sheath
protective fatty tissue that surrounds the axon of a nerve cell.
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
oligodendroglia
glial cell that produces myelin
cerebral cortex
outer region of the largest part of the brain; composed of gray matter.
dura mater
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
synapse
Space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells.
medulla oblongata
Lower part of the brain, closest to the spinal cord; controls breathing heartbeat, and size of blood vessels.
hypothalamus
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
sensory nerve
carries messages toward the brain from receptors.
parenchymal cell
essential cell of the nervous system; a neuron.
pia mater
innermost meningeal membrane.
gyri
elevations in the cerebral cortex.
neurotransmitter
acetycholine is an example of this chemical released into a synapse.
subarachnoid space
contains cerebrospinal fluid.
intrathecal
Pertaining to within the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
glioma
a tumor arising from glial cells.
myelogram
Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
subdural hematoma
Collection of blood in the space below the dura mater surrounding the brain.
meningioma
tumor of the meninges.
paresthesias
Abnormal nervous sensation occurring without apparent cause. Examples are tingling, numbness or prickling sensations
bradykinesia
slow movement
hyperesthesia
increased nervous sensation
narcolepsy
seizure of sleep
apraxia
movements and behavior are not purposeful.
syncope
fainting
causalgia
burning pain
ataxia
no coordination
hemiparesis
slight paralysis in half the body.
multiple sclerosis
destruction of myelin sheath; replacement by plaques of hard scar tissue.
epilepsy
sudden, transient disturbances of brain function marked by seizures.
myasthenia gravis
loss of muscle strength; breakdown of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
Parkinson disease
Degeneration of nerves in the brain leading to tremors, shuffling gait, and muscle stiffness (mask-like facial expression); dopamine is deficient in the brain.
Alzheimer disease
deterioration of mental capacity (dementia) beginning in middle age; cerebral cortex atrophy, microscopic neurofibrillary tangles.
Bell palsy
Unilateral facial paralysis.
pyogenic meningitis
Infectious inflammation infilitration of leptomeninges caused by bacteria.
Tourett syndrome
Neurologic disorder characterized by multiple facial and other body tics.
shingles
Viral (herpes zoster) illness that affects peripheral nerves; produces blisters and pain on the skin overlying the path of peripheral nerves.
cerebral embolus
an obstruction in a cerebral artery by an embolus, usually resulting in transient or permanent impairment of cognitive, motor, or sensory function.
aura
Peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptons.
palliative
relieving but not curing.
transient ischemic attack
interruption of blood supply to the cerebrum.
occlusion
blockage.
dopamine
neurotransmitter.
glioblastoma multiforme
malignant brain tumor of immature glial cells.
Tonic-clonic seizure
major convulsive epileptic seizure.
absence seizure
minor form of epileptic seizure.
stroma
the connective and framework tissue of any organ.
Myelin sheath
Fatty tissue that surrounds and protects the axon of a nerve cell.
Cerebrum
Largest part of the brain.
Cerebellum
posterior part of the brain; responsible for maintain balance.
Astrocyte
a type of glial cell.
Acetylcholine
neurotransmitter chemical released at the end of nerve cell.
synapse
the space through which a nerve impulse passes from one nerve cell to another.
Leptomeningeal
inflammation of membranes around the brain and spinal cord.
glioma
malignant brain tumor
Bradykinesia
slow movement.
Ataxia
lack of muscle coordinaton
Anencephaly
condition of absence of a brain (congenital anomaly)
Syncopal
pertaining to fainting
Meningioma
benign tumor of the membranes around the brain.
Hypothalamus
part of the brain that controls the secretion of the pituitary gland.
Neurasthenia
nervous exhaustion; "lack of nerve strength".
Apraxia
movements and behavior are not purposeful
Paraplegia
paralysis of the lower part of the body.
Comatose
state of unconsciousness from which a patient cannot be aroused.
Gyrus
elevation on the surface of the cerebral cortex.
Embolus
a floating clot; mass of material suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
Palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curing.
Transient ischemic attack
mini-stroke
Cerebral angiography
x-ray record of blood vessels within the brain.
dementia
mental decline and deterioration
Cerebral hemorrhage
breakage of a blood vessel within the brain.
Multiple sclerosis
demyelination of tissue around the axons of CNS neurons
cerebral palsy
paralysis and loss of muscular coordination caused by brain damage in the perinatal period.
spina bifida
congenital defect of the spinal column with herniation of the spinal cord and meninges.
Tonic-clonic seizure
Major convulsive epileptic seizure.
Glioblastoma multiforme
malignant brain tumor
Myasthenia gravis
relapsing weakness of skeletal muscles ("no muscle strength"); autoimmune condition.
Hydrocephalus
collection of fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
Parkinson disease
degeneration of nerves in the brain; occuring in later life and leeading to tremors and bradykinesia.
gait
manner of walking
dopamine
type of neurotransmitter
Aura
peculiar sensation appearing before more definite symptoms
Tourette syndrome
involuntary, spasmodic twitching movements; uncontrollable utterances.
Hypothalamus
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
neurorrhaphy
surgical suture of a divided nerve.
motor nerve
Carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles.
Myelin sheath
Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
Meningioma
Tumor (benign) of the meninges.
Hyperkinesis
Excessive movement.
Neurasthenia
Lack of strength in nerves; a feeling of weakness and exhaustion.
Paresis
Slight paralysis.
Demyelination
Destruction of myelin on axons of nerves (as in multiple sclerosis).
syncopal
pertaining to fainting
paresthesia
abnormal sensation
palliative
relieving, but not curing.
aura
peculiar symptoms appearing before more definite symptoms
dementia
loss of mental capacity.
intrathecal
within the meninges
parenchymal
essential cells of an organ
synapse
space between nerve cells
cerebellum
part of the brain that controls nuscular coordination
gait
manner of walking
angiography
process of recording blood vessels using contrast and x-rays
encephalopathy
disease of the brain
Occlusion
Blockage or obstruction.
meningomyelocele
a protrusion of meninges and spinal cord through a defect in the spinal column
Syncope
Fainting; temporary loss of consciousness.
Dendrite
Microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse.
Myelogram
X-ray record (with contrast) of the spinal cord.
glioma
a tumor arising from glial cells
Hyperesthesia
Excessive sensitivity or feeling, especially of the skin in response to touch or pain.
Narcolepsy
Sudden seizures of sleep.
glial
pertaining to supportive cells of the nervous system.
axon
substance that helps transmit a nervous impulse.
Acetylcholine
part of a nerve cell.
embolism
obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign substance.
plexus
network of nerve fibers.
cauda equina
tail end of the spinal cord.
meninges
three membrames surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
synapse
space between nerve cells.
Thalamus
a part of the brain that serves as a relay station for impulses.
Neurasthenia
lack of strength in nerves; sense of weakness and exhaustion.
dysphonia
difficult speech
analgesia
a condition of insensitivity to pain
hemiparesis
slight paralysis of the right or left side of the body.
radiculitis
inflammation of a spinal nerve root.
neuropathy
disease of a nerve.
vagotomy
incision of the vagus nerve.
ataxia
lack of coordination
dysesthesia
condition of painful nervous sensation
glioblastoma
tumor of immature brain cells (glia).
electroencephalography
Electrical record of the brain.
Axon
Microscopic fiber that carries a nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Cell body
Part of the nerve cell (neuron) that contains the nucleus.
cell nucleus
control center
dendrites
Microscopic branching portion of a nerve cell; first part of the nerve cell to receive the nervous impulse.
myelin sheath
Fatty, white covering over the axon of a nerve cell.
synapse
Space between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscle and glandular cells.
thalamus
main relay center of the brain
neurotransmitter
chemical messager released at the end of neurons
dura mater
outermost layer of meninges
cerebrum
largest part of the brain
cerebellum
part of the brain the coordinates muscle movement and maintains balance.
hypothalamus
beneath the thalamus; controls appetite, sleep, and the pituitary gland.
pia mater
thin, delicate inner membrane of meninges.
medulla oblongata
part of the brain the controls respiration, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels
arachnoid membrane
middle meningeal membrane; spider-like.
pons
lying between the medulla and the rest of the brain; bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
glial cell
Astrocyte is an example.
dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell; first part of the neuron to receive the nervous impulse.
parenchyma
essential, distinguishing cells of an organ.
synapse
space through which a nervious impulse is transmitted.
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter
central nervous system
brain and the spinal cord.
sensory nerve
carries messages to the brain and spinal cord.
axon
microscopic nerve fiber that carries impulse from the cell body along the nerve cell.
autonomic nervous systems
sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves.
myelin sheath
fatty tissue surrounding and protecting the axon of a nerve cell.
cauda equina
collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
ventricles of the brain
canals in the interior of the brain containing cerebrospinal fluid.
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies in the PNS.
blood-brain barrier
capillaries that let certain substances enter the brain and keep other substances out of the brain.
receptor
organ that receives a nervous stimulation and passes it on to nerves within the body; ear and eye are examples.
stimulus
any change in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
gyrus
elevation in the surface of the cerebral cortex.
sulcus
depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex.
plexus
large, interlacing network of nerves.
brainstem
lower portion of the brain connecting the cerebrum with the spinal cord.
encephal/o
brain
kines/o
movement
mening/o
membranes, meninges
neur/o
nerve
my/o
muscle
vag/o
vaus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
radicul/o
nerve root (of spinal nerves).
tax/o
order, coordination
myel/o
spinal cord (means bone marrow in other contexts).
esthesi/o
feeling, nervous sensation.
quadri-
four
hypo-
deficient, below, under, less than normal
hemi-
half
poly-
many; much
sub-
under; below
micro-
small
hyper-
above, excessive
dys-
bad; painful; difficult, abnormal
epi-
above; upon, on
para-
near beside; abnormal; apart from; aong the side of (loss or impairment of the ability to move parts of the body).
-algesia
excessive, sensitivity to pain
-paresis
weakness
-phasia
speech
-ptosis
droop, sag, prolapse, protrude
-sclerosis
hardening
-plegia
paralyses
-sthenia
strength
-parxia
action
-blast
embryonic; immature cell
-cele
herina
demyelination
destruction of myelin on the axons of nerves.
pons
part of the brain; means "bridge".
aneurysm
abnormal widening of a blood vessel.
embolism
mass of material travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
dementia
mental decline and deterioration.
palliative
relieving symptoms, but not curing.
acetylcholine
neurotransmitter released at the end of some nerve cells.
cerebellum
posterior part of the brain.
meninges
three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
dopamine
neutrotransmitter that is deficient in Parkinson disease.
astrocytoma
malignant tumor of glial cells (astrocytes) in the brain.
cerebrum
largest part of the brain.
nerve
macroscopic structure consisting of axons and dendrites in bundle-like strands.
aura
pecular sensation appearing before more definite symptoms.
occlusion
blockage
gait
manner of walking.
thymectomy
removal of the thymus gland; treatment for myasthenia gravis.
gyri
sheets of nerve cells that produce elevation in the cerebral cortex, convolution.
axon
microscopic fiber that carries the nerous impulse along a nerve cell.
dendrite
microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.