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24 Cards in this Set

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1. Aristotle and classical Greek learning

Some works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle had always been known in Western Europe, but beginning in the eleventh century, medieval thought was increasingly shaped by a great recovery of Aristotle's works and a fascination with other Greek authors.

2. Byzantine Empire

Term used by modern historians to refer to the surviving eastern Roman Empire during the medieval centuries; named after the ancient Greek city Byzantium.

3. caesaropapism

A political-religious system in which the secular ruler is also head of the religious establishment, as in the Byzantine Empire.

4. Charlemagne

Ruler of the Carolingian Empire (r. 768-814) who staged an imperial revival in Western Europe.

5. Christianity, Eastern Orthodox

Branch of Christianity that developed in the eastern part of the Roman Empire and gradually separated, mostly on matters of practice, from the branch of Christianity dominant in Western Europe.

6. Christianity, Roman Catholic

Western European branch of Christianity that gradually defined itself as separate from Eastern Orthodoxy, with a major break in 1054 C.E.

7. Constantinople

New capital for the eastern half of the Roman Empire, established by Emperor Constantine in 330 C.E. on the site of the ancient Greek city of Byzantium.

8. Crusades

Modern term meaning "ventures of the cross," used to describe the "holy wars" waged by Western Christendom from 1095 until the end of the Middle Ages and beyond.

9. Cyril and Methodius

Ninth-century Byzantine missionaries to the Slavs whose development of Cyrillic script made it possible to write Slavic languages.

10. Cyrillic

Alphabet based on Greek letters that was developed by two Byzantine missionaries, Cyril and Methodius, to write Slavic languages.

11. European cities

Western Europe saw a major process of urbanization beginning in the eleventh century, with towns that created major trade networks and that were notable for the high degree of independence they often enjoyed.

12. Greek fire

Form of liquid fire that could be sprayed at the enemy.

13. guild

An association formed by people pursuing the same line of work that regulated their professions; it also provided a social and religious network for members.

14. Holy Roman Empire

Term invented in the twelfth century to describe the Germany-based empire founded by Otto I in 962 C.E.

15. “hybrid civilization,” the West as a

The distinctive path of Western Europe in the centuries following the fall of the western Roman Empire, leading to a society that included elements of ancient Rome, the practices of Germanic invaders who formed new states, Christianity, and elements of pre-Roman culture that still survived.

16. iconoclasm

The destruction of holy images.

17. indulgence

A remission of the penalty (penance) for confessed sin that could be granted only by a pope, at first to Crusaders and later for a variety of reasons.

18. Justinian

Byzantine emperor (r. 527-565 C.E.), noted for his short-lived reconquest of much of the former western Roman Empire and for his codification of Roman law.

19. Kievan Rus

State that emerged around the city of Kiev in the ninth century C.E.; a culturally diverse region that included Vikings as well as Finnic and Baltic peoples.

20. natural philosophy

The scientific study of nature, which developed, especially in Europe, in the later Middle Ages.

21. Otto I

King of Germany (r. 936-973) who built a consolidated German-northern Italian state and was crowned emperor in 962, creating what became known in time as the "Holy Roman Empire."

22. system of competing states

The distinctive organization of Western European political life that developed after the fall of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E. in which the existence of many small, independent states encouraged military and economic competition.

23. Vikings

Scandinavian raiders who had an impact on much of Western Europe in the late eighth to eleventh centuries.

24. Vladimir, prince of Kiev

Grand prince of Kiev (r. 978-1015 C.E.) whose conversion to Orthodox Christianity led to the incorporation of Russia into the sphere of Eastern Orthodoxy.