Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define/describe Management (pg 2)

-the judicious use of means to accomplish an end

-organization and coordination of the activities of a business in order to achieve defined objectives

-group of those who mange or direct an organization

-AHIMA: the process of planning, organizing, and leading organizational activities

define Manager (2):

an individual who is in charge of a business or department

define leader (2):

an individual who has commanding authority or influence

define follower (2):

an individual who is in the service of another

define employee (2):

an individual who works for another person or for an organization for wages or a salary

define subordinate (2):

an individual in a position of less power or authority than someone else

What is management theory (2)?

a collection of ideas which set forth general rules on how to manage a business or organization

What does management theory address? (2)

how managers and supervisors relate to their organizations in the knowledge of its goals, the implementation of effective means to achieve the set goals, and how to motivate employees to perform to the highest standard

What are historical management theories? (2)

concepts that made a significant impression on the management practices utilized within healthcare organizations

What is one of the first-identified forms of management and when was it first established? (2)

-scientific management

-early 20th century

Why was scientific management one of the first-identified forms of management? (2)

because it is a discipline that can be studied and tested within organizations

What is scientific management? (2)

studying work processes and how they impact worker's productivity that is primarily concerned with improving the efficiency of individual employees in the work environment by assessing the distribution of work, studying time and motion of job tasks, as well as measuring work actually performed

Name the key players in the development of scientific management: (3)

1. Frederick Taylor

2. Max Weber

3. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

4. Henry Gantt

Frederick Taylor: (pg 3-4)

-a management theorist that introduced time and motion studies for assessing the efficiency of performed work

-felt that managers needed more knowledge about work processes in order to motivate employees to perform well


-Taylor "management style" that believed managers could improve employees' work efficiencies by streamlining work motions and hiring employees amenable to performing job task in this type of environment

-Taylor: labeled the "father of scientific management"

-established FOUR scientific principles known as "TAYLORISMS"

name the four Taylorisms, Frederick Taylor's scientific principles for scientific management: (4)

1. EVALUATE work performed utilizing the scientific method in order to determine the most efficient way for workers to complete tasks

2. MATCH employees to their jobs based on capability and motivate and train employees to work at maximum efficiency

3. MONITOR employee performance and provide instructions and supervision to ensure they use the most efficient ways of working

4. ALLOCATE the work between managers and subordinates so managers spend their time on planning and training, allowing subordinates to perform tasks efficiently

Max Weber (4)

-a scientific management theorist

-introduced the BUREAUCRACY theory around 1904 (but much of his work wasn't published until after his death in 1920)

-his theory revolved around concepts of legitimate authority in an organization

-Weber's theory of bureaucratic management outlined a hierarchical or pyramidal structure to help achieve the most rational and efficient operation at the lowest cost along with providing authority to those who had management positions within the hierarchy

-his theory viewed bureaucracy in an organization positively

-Weber's theory stated two essential components to a bureaucratic organization

What is AUTHORITY? (4)

the right to make decisions and take actions necessary to carry out assigned tasks

What is legitimate authority? (4)

it identifies individuals who have the right to demonstrate power over other individuals within a bureaucratic organization

Describe Weber's two essential components to a bureaucratic organization: (4)

1. Organizations are structured into hierarchies arranged at an organizational level of authority as demonstrated in an organizational chart

2. The organization and its workgroup are governed by clearly defined decision-making rules that are outlined in policies and procedures that are managed by levels of authority within an organization

What are the three types of legitimate authority within organizations that Weber identified in his work? (4)

1. Traditional authority is when authority is inherently understood wihtin an organization or group (ex: corporate business owner, tribal chief, royal monarch such as the Queen of England). This type of authority rests "on the established belief of sanctity of traditions and legitimacy of those exercising authority under them.

2. Rational-legal authority is displayed as boundaries outlined wihtin organizations, which rely on the rules and laws imposed by those authorative management positions (ex: President of the US and CEO of a healthcare organization)

3. Charismatic authority embodies a leader who has the capacity to influence subordinates which Weber viewed as valuable and effective during times of instability

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (5)

-scientific management innovators who followed closely in Taylor's footsteps by continuing scientific management research, while their perspective on studying work and workers differed from Taylor's

-Frank Gilbreth used stopwatch time studies to evaluate how workers performed tasks and how body mechanics impacted the time required to complete tasks

-Later, stopwatch time was replaced with recorded motion pictures film and called "micromotion study"

-introduced new scientific management concepts into the workplace such "re-organization and improvement of the routing of work, introduction of planning departments, and cost accounting"

-Frank and Lillian published a paper titled"Fatigue Study" in 1916 that showed fatigue resulting from job tasks that showed why unnecessary movements should be removed and described designing efficient work stations to decrease worker fatigue

-placed motion picture cameras within hospital operating rooms so studies could be performed to decrease fatigue within the operating room and to gain efficiencies within the operation procedures


-findings in those two papers recommended standardization of hospital design, medical equipment, and patient records to enhance efficiencies of work for healthcare workers as well as decreasing work fatigue

Henry Gantt: (5)

-a scientific management disciple who studied closely with Taylor during the 20th century

-developed the GANTT CHART

-made 3 other contributions to the development of scientific management:

1. Task and bonus system-rewards encouraged workers to increase productivity

2. Perspective of the worker-encouraged the supervisor to be a helper and teacher to subordinates in order to receive bonuses

3. Social responsibility of business-"Gantt believed increasingly that management had obligations to the community at large and that the profitable organization had a duty toward the welfare of society"

What is a GANTT CHART? (5)

a bar chart that allows project managers to plan and control projects at a glance by defining the steps of a project and the completion dates of each step

How did Gantt's beliefs differ from Taylor's? (5)

He believed that work was empowering to workers and managers rather than adversarial (involving or characterized by conflict or opposition)

What technique was developed by Gantt and is visually displayed by a Gantt chart? (6)


What is backcasting? (6)

the process of deciding on a goal and then working backwards to determine from the current state what steps need to be taken to achieve the goal

What is administrative management? (6)

a management theory that attempts to identify the design of an organization and is associated with the following principles: 1. requires a formalized administrative structure where there are clear lines of authority marked as a hierarchical structure; 2. defines a clear division of labor among workers; 3. reflects delegation of power and authority to upper management

-it incorporates assessing the organization as a whole in relation to the work being performed

List the individuals who impacted research on administrative management: (6-8)

1. Henry Fayol

2. James D. Mooney

3. Chester Barnard

4. Mary Parker Follett

Henry Fayol (6-7)

-was the 1st administrative management theorist

-is often thought of as the "FATHER OF MODERN MANAGEMENT"

-identified 5 KEY MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS: forecasting and planning, organization, commanding, coordinating, and controlling the work of the organization

-noted that workers performed technical components and managers performed administrative functions

-credited for developing 14 principles of management for structure and organization that were designed to fit all organizations

-believed employees needed more than just payment for services for motivation to participation in the workplace

-Like Taylor, Fayol assumed the management concepts could be applied universally and that the practice of management should only be exhibited by upper level executives within an organization

James D. Mooney (7-9):

-an administrative management theorist that was employed by General Motors Company for 40 years

-unpublished paper: THE SCIENCE OF INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION that suggested 6 principles of organization

1. Division of duties

2. COordination of effort

3. Leadership

4. Delegation of duties

5. The functional definition of duties

6. Line-and-staff principles

-felt these 6 concepts impacted the

management functions within an organization

and different management styles were needed to MANAGE DIVERSE ORGANIZATIONS

-Staff managers had the authority of creation of ideas & LINE MANAGERS had the authority to carry out the ideas based on their hierarchical positions within the organization

-used an organizational chart

Chester Barnard (8):

-an administrative theorist that developed his theories while working for AT&T throughout the mid 1900s

-addressed organizational structure but considered the managerial skills required to obtain cooperation from subordinates within the organization

-said that organizations contained a SOCIAL ENTITY and not just an organizational chart

-Believed goals could be achieved by:

1. cooperative attitudes between units

2. cross-training of personnel

3. Interdepartmental instruction

4. organizational efficiency and effectiveness

5. creating authentic and realistic goals for the organization

6. developing trust throughout all levels of organization between employees and management

7. personal responsibility

8. leadership flexibility and balance

-PUBLISHED AND PRACTICED his theories while working for AT&T

-was a successful manager and teacher

-TWO management concepts associated with him included: ACCEPTANCE VIEW OF AUTHORITY and ZONE OF INDIFFERENCE

describe -TWO management concepts associated with him included: ACCEPTANCE VIEW OF AUTHORITY and ZONE OF INDIFFERENCE by Chester Barnard (8)

1. acceptance view of authority; when an employee considers a request by the manager to be in the best interest of the group, is understandable, and meets the employee's personal interests

2. the zone of indifference proves a manager's concept of power; a manger's orders will be perceived as legitimate and the employee wil act on or perform the request without a great deal of thought

***both of these theories are dependent on the communication skills of the manager and his or her ability to facilitate cooperation within the workgroup

Mary Parker Follett: (8-9)

-the first administrative theorist to be concerned with psychosocial approach to industry and organizational management rather than a more scientific approach to management

-early 20th century writings focused on philosophical and psychological foundation of workers and the interdisciplinary approach workers contribute to an organization


-manager exercised power WITH others rather than OVER others

-managers worked with subordinates to get work done rather than dictating the work to be accomplished by subordinates

Humanistic Management (9)

-individual human needs and human values were considered within the management of an organization

-must have three key dimensions to be considered humanistic

1. human dignity is the key element of consideration

2. ethical complexities are evaluated

3. all stakeholders must be involved in the decision-making process

Elton Mayo (9):

- a humanistic management theorist



-researched human relations management at the Hawthorne plant of WEstern Electric in Cicero, Illinois

-differed from Taylor because he thought that employees were not only interested in receiving remuneration for services, but also that employees wanted to be considered unique individuals with goals and aspirations that match those of the organization

-Hawthorne studies: examined productivity and work conditions for a group of female workers at the Hawthorne plant for almost a year and evaluated impact of change to hours, wages, rest periods, lighting conditions, organization and degree of supervision, and what specific conditions impacted the group's work performance and productivity

What are the FOUR general conclusions of the Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo? (9)

1. The aptitudes of individuals are imperfect predictors of job performance

2. informal organization affects productivity

3. workgroup norms affect productivity

4. the workplace is a social system

-Noted that collaboration rather than competition was important to workers


Abraham Maslow: (9)

-a humanistic management theorist who was a psychologist and researcher who addressed employees' motivation in terms of human relations

-addressed a behavioral scientific approach to employee motivation and motivational theory

-his theory: MASLOW'S HIERARCH OF HUMAN NEEDS: strived to understand the needs of people at work and what motivated employees to perform within an organization. The hierarchy starts with a low level of psychological needs such as staying alive to a high level such as self-actualization such as self-fulfillment and achievement

Douglas McGregor (9-10)

-a humanistic management theorist concerned with the observation of managers' behaviors in real work situations

-THE HUMAN SIDE OF ENTERPRISE, published in 1960, addressed the X and Y theories of management

1. Theory X: an authoritarian type of management style that assumes employees do not like to work and must have direct oversight in order to perform their jobs

2. Theory Y: opposite of theory x; managers assume that employees enjoy to work and that they are self-motivated in completing their job tasks

What is Authoritarian management ? (10)_

a management style in which the leader dictates policies and procedures, decides what goals are to be achieved, and directs and controls all activities without any meaningful participation by the subordinates

What is participatory management? (10)

style in which management allows employees to take an active role in decision-making processes that relates directly to their jobs

McGregor had two distinct management concepts: (10)

1. Job enlargement: concept that adding a VARIETY to job tasks will decrease lack of interest and thereby allow more job flexibility

2. Collaborative performance appraisals: engages employees in the process of evaluating work performed by requiring managers to solicit input from employees about actual work performance

-built his premise based on Maslow's hierarchy of needs, reflecting that individuals will perform in association with how their needs are being met within an organization

What is Operations Management? (10-11)

-management that deals with the design and management of products, processes, services, and supply chains

-evaluates tools that are needed to manage processes of interrelated activities

-operations managers need to focus on forecasting, planning, scheduling, managing inventors, assuring quality, and motivating employees so as to guide the organization in decision making

What are two operations management theories that assist managers in improving processes within an organization? (11)



Explain SIX SIGMA: (11)

-created in 1986 by Motorola Company

-is a set of techniques and tools utilized to improve capabilities of organizational business processes

What does DMAIC stand for? (11)

-DEFINE the opportunity for improvement

-MEASURE current performance

-ANALYZE the opportunity

-IMPROVE the opportunity

-CONTROL performance after improvements are made

Describe LEAN (11):

-a management strategy that utilizes LESS TO DO MORE

-can be used in any type of organization

-derived from Japanese auto industry that took place in the 1990s within the Toyota Production System

-Basic concept: create more value for customers while using FEWER RESOURCES; less waste in terms of human effort, space, capital, and time while still delivering a quality product

-All levels of leadership must be involved

What is contemporary management? (12)

-uses current practices to plan, organize, and control individuals within an organization

Who is one of the most notable theorists associated with contemporary management? (12)

Peter Drucker

Who was Peter Drucker? (12)

an author, teacher, writer, and management consultant nicknamed "FATHER OF MODERN MANAGEMENT"

-Believed that a business is not only an economic organization but a human social organization

-believed it was up to management to maintain a positive work environment in order for employees to stay motivated to perform

-introduced MBO (Management by Objectives) in a writing THE PRACTICE OF MANAGEMENT: which is a very structured approach in which the objectives of an organization are agreed upon by management and employees so that everyone is working towards common goals

-fOCUSED ON 2 key concepts:



-believed management should provide the right structure, training, and development so employees can succeed at their jobs

-managers must challenge everyone by utilizing self-control and self-discipline

-was an advocate for understanding and valuing diversity within the workplace

_______________ is an important management concept when hiring staff within healthcare organizations. (12)


What is leadership? (12)

is the activity of guiding a group of people to a definite result

-is believed by many to be an innate quality that can't be taught to an individual

What are the theories of leadership? (13)

-trait theories of leadership

-behavioral theories of leadership





*The diagram incorporating these types of leadership suggests that each leadership theory builds on the next and no distinct leadership style fits all management situations within an organization


-attempts to define the general qualities or traits that need to be present within an individual to be a leader

Which theory is the most documented trait theory that notes that certain traits within individuals can be identified as keys for success in leadership? (13)



they focus on the study of specific behaviors of leaders

What are the IOWA STUDIES? (14)

WERE ONE OF THE 1st behavioral studies that focused on leadership roles rather than the traits exhibited by the leaders

-performed by Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lippitt, and Ralph K. White, within IOWA State University at the Child Welfare Research Station in 1939



2. DEMOCRATIC-assists and encourages, allowing the workgroup to participate

3. LAISSEZ-FAIRE LEADER-only provides the resources for the group's activities but does not participate

What is the Ohio State Leadership Studies? (14)

performed in the 1950s and 1960s at the Ohio STate University, this research delineated a two-dimensional theory of leadership behavior and assessed the dimensions of leadership concern over the task objectives and the concern for relationship objectives

What are the Michigan Studies? (14)

-early 1950s at the University of Michigan

-was similar to the Ohio Studies in terms of determining leadership behaviors that impact employee productivity and enhance employee job satisfaction

-more of a one-dimensional theory saying that leaders are not able to focus on production and employees at the same time

-these studies did not take into consideration situational variances that may impact leadership styles

McGregor X and Y Theories as Behavioral Theories: (14)

-more closely linked to the study of human relationship management but can be linked to leadership

Leadership Continuum (15)

-done in 1958 by Robert Tannebaum and Warren Schmidt

-had a significant impact on leadership research in the US

-based on earlier Iowas studies

-Said leadership can be explained in 7 steps of behavioral styles ranging from authority to delegation (team-centered)

autocratic manager (16)

has total control and authority over decision making and essentially micromanages the work performed by the employees

Democratic manager (16)

allows employees to participate in decision making regarding work outcomes

Managerial grid: (16)

a behavioral theory that offers a two-dimensional behavioral approach that assists individuals with identification of an appropriate leadership style through the concern for the people or tasks

-objective: to analyze and identify the type of leadership skills exhibited by the leader

-has four distinct quadrants

1. team or participative leader: high concern for both people and production

2. country club leader: high concern for people and low concern for production

3. authoritarian leader: high concern for production and low concern for people

4. impoverished or laissez-faire leader: low scores for concern for people and production

*Middle of the road leader: a type of leader who may fall centrally into the scoring

Contingency theories: (17)

leadership effectiveness is related to the interplay of a leader's traits or behaviors and situational factors

-is dependent on matching the leader's style to the workplace situation

Frederick Fiedler's Contingency model (17)


-is dependent on the leader's task or relationship motivational style and situational control

-2 styles of leadership:

1. task-motivated

2. relationship-motivated



Path-goal Theory: (17)

-started by Martin Evans in 1970 and continued by Robert House in 1971

-says that the leader should develop a path for followers to achieve group goals

-depends on leader's behaviors, follower's expectations, and organizational situation


1. Directive leaders provide specific instruction

2. Supportive leaders provide emotional support

3. Participative leaders allow followers to participate in decision-making

4. Achievement-oriented leaders set goals for their follower and assist followers in achieving goals

-The effectiveness of the leader is dependent on the characteristics of the followers within the group and how closely they match the leader's characteristics

Normative Decision Model: (17)

1973, Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton

-focuses on situational factors rather than leadership behaviors and it guides managers through the decision-making processes depending on the type of problem encountered


1. Autocratic Leadership style

Authority I and Authority II

2. Consultative Leadership

Consultative I and Consultative II

3. Participative leadership

-utilizes a complex decision tree answering 8 different questions about the management situation in order to select a leadership style that most closely fits the situation

Situational Leadership Theory (18):

-Paul Hershey and Ken Blanchard, 1969

-says that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader's ability to change his or her behavior to meet the demands of the situation

-takes into account maturity of followers ( job ability and psychological willingness to work)

Transformational and Transactional Theories of Leadership (19)

1970, James MacGregor

-two different styles of leadership were inherent

1. Transformational: the act of changing or transforming leadership fromone current state to another state; research shows a positive effect on followers' work performance and job satisfaction

2. Transactional: performed through structure and process; leaders clarify goals and objectives for followers and followers receive some kind of reward in exchange for performing work satisfactorily; is very similar to McGregor's X and Y theories of management

Bernard Bass


-inspired by Burns

-characterized transactional leaders as those who avoid risk and attempt to work within the system by maintaining status quo

-characterized transformational leaders as those who seek new or innovative ways to perform work, are willing to take risks, and do not like the status quo

-Noted that EFFECTIVE leaders are both transactional and transformational

-Multifactor leadership questionnaire: a tool utilized to measure the components of transactional and trasnformational leadership

Value-based leadership: (20)

a style of leadership built on a foundation of personal values, principles, or ethics

-values are a key component

-value: a principle or ideal intrinsically valuable or desirable (human rather than material)

-ensures leaders effectively communicate values of integrity and responsibility to employees within the organization

-leaders must be committed to and motivated by the values of the organization

-The following elements must be worked on:

1. Self-reflection

2. Organizational balance

3. Values of a team of followers

4. Commit to values-based leadership-

-requires leaders to stand by the organization's values and not compromise personal values if conflict occurs among leaders when values collide

Servant Leadership (21)

-Robert Greenleaf

-employed at At&T for 28 years

-organizations that thrive have able leadership that provides support to employees and serves both the employees and the organization

-defined servant leadership as a philosophy and set of practices that enriches the lives of individuals, builds better organizations, and ultimately creates a more just and caring world

-servant leaders share the power of leadership with those they serve

-emphasizes increased service to others, a holistic approach to work, promoting a sense of community, and sharing of power in decision making

-caregivers must put the needs of whom they serve FIRST

What are the 10 characteristics of Servant Leadership? (21)

1. Listening

2. Empathy

3. Awareness

4. Stewardship

5. Commitment to people

6. persuasion

7. foresight

8. healing

9. conceptualization

10. community building

1. __________________ is identified as the "father of scientific management:

Frederick Taylor (pg 4)

2. This management theory is identified by a formalized hierarchical structure with a clear division between workers and management

Administrative Management (pg 6)

3. This management theory includes three key dimensions: human dignity is an important element, ethical complexities are evaluated, and all stakeholders (managers and employees) are involved in the decision-making process:

Humanistic managment (pg 9)

The Hawthorne effect was categorized by ____________ after his observations regarding management in the Western Electric Plan, Cicero, IL.

Elton Mayo (page 9)

_______________ performed human relations management research that was geared toward a behavioral scientific approach in regards to employee motivation.

Abraham Maslow

6. ________________________ is a method that provides organizations tools to improve the capability of their business processes and some examples of these techniques are control charts, failure mode, effects analysis, and process mapping.

Six Stigma

7. This is a leadership theory that is associated with matching the leader's style to the situation.

Contingency Theory

8. The ____________________ theory proposed that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader's ability to change his or her behavior to meet the demands of the situation. This theory also takes into account the maturity of the followers in terms of their job ability and psychological willingness to work.

Situational leadership

9. A _____________________ is defined as a principle or ideal intrinsically valuable or desirable (human rather than material) and is embraced within _______________ leadership.

Value, Values-based

10. Transformational leaders are those who:

Focus on the act of changing from one current state to another