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25 Cards in this Set

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Applied Behavior Analysis
the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior
Behaviorism
the philosophy of a science of behavior
Determinism
the assumption that the universe is a lawful and orderly place in which phenomena occur in relation to the other events and not in a willy-nilly accidental fashion
Empiricism
the objective observation of the phenomena of interest
experiment
a carefully controlled comparison of some measure of the phenomena of interest under two or more conditions in which only one factor at a time differs from one condition to another
Experimental Analysis of Behavior ( EAB)
a natural science approach to the study of behavior
explanatory fiction
a fictitious or hypothetical variable that often take the form of another name for the observed phenomenon it claims to explain and contributes nothing to a functional account or understanding of the phenomenon
functional relation
a verbal statement summarizing the results of an experiment that describes the occurrence of the phenomena under study as a function of the operation of one ore more specified and controlled variables in the experiment in which specific change in one event can be produced by manipulating another event and that the change in the DV was unlikely the result of other factors
hypothetical construct
a presumed but unobserved process or entity
mentalism
an approach to explaining behavior that assumes that a mental or inner dimension exists that differs from a behavioral dimension and that phenomena in this dimension neither directly cause or at least mediate some forms of behavior, if not all
methodological behaviorism
a philosophical position that views behavioral events that cannot be publically observed as outside the realm of science
parsimony
the practice of ruling out simple, logical explanations, experimentally or conceptually; before considering more complex or abstract explanations
philosophic data
an attitude that the truthfulness and validity of all scientific theory and knowledge should be continually questioned.
radical behaviorism
a thoroughgoing form of behaviorism that attempts to understand all human behavior, including private events such as thoughts and feelings , in terms of controlling variables in the history of the person and the species
replication
repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiments to other subjects
science
a systematic approach to the understanding of natural phenomena (description, prediction, control) that relies on determinism as its fundamental assumption, empiricism as its primary rule, experimentation as its basic strategy, replication as a requirement for believability, parsimony as a value, and philosophical doubt as its guiding conscience.
What are the 6 attitudes of science
Determinism, Empiricism, experimentation, replication, parsimony, philosophical doubt
What are the defining characteristics of Applied Behavior Analysis?
Generality, Effective, Technological, Behavioral, Applied, Analytic, Conceptually systematic
Applied
investigates socially significant behaviors with immediate importance to the subject
Behavioral
entails precise measurement of the actual behavior in need of improvement and documents that it was the subjects behavior that changed
Analytic
demonstrates experimental control over the occurrence and nonoccurrence of the behavior- a functional relationship is demonstrated
Technological
the written description of all procedures used in the study is sufficiently complete and detailed to enable others to replicate it
Conceptually systematic
behavior change interventions are derived from basic principles of behavior
Effective
improves behavior sufficiently to produce practical results for the participant
Generality
produces behavior changes that last over time, appear in other environments, or spread to other behaviors