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78 Cards in this Set

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Incas
The Incas were distinct from other people and their languages ,they lived in the highlands of Cuzco. They were old people and were subject to regional powers throughout the long history of South American Urban Cultures.They began to spread their influence from the 12th century to the late 16th century and they conquered more land than any other group living in South America.The empire consisted of over one million individuals, spanning a territory stretching from Ecuador to northern Chile.
Mayas
Unlike the cultures of the Valley of Mexico, the only period in which the urban centers were important to the Mayas was during the Classic period from 300 to 900 AD. The culture of the Mayas, however, has little changed from the classic period to the modern period, for Maya culture was largely tribal and rural all throughout the Classic period. What distinguishes Classic from post-Classic Maya culture was the importance of urban centers and their structures in the religious life of the Mayas and the extent of literate culture.
Aztecs
The Aztecs were a people who settled in a valley in central Mexico in the 14th century. The word 'Aztec' derives from Aztlán, a possibly-mythological place north of their eventual empire, where the Aztecs believed their tribe originated. The Aztecs referred to themselves as Mexica, a term of disputed origin, from which the modern name of Mexico derives.

The Aztecs followed a dream-prophecy to the shores of Lake Texcoco. Their sun god, Huitzilopochtli, instructed them that if they found an eagle on a cactus eating a snake, that was where they should found their city. So it was that Tenochtitlan was built out over Lake Texcoco, since subsumed by modern day Mexico City.
Chaco Canyon
The site of Chaco Canyon is located in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. It was occupied by people today known as the Anasazi during the mid-7th century. The Anasazi inhabited much of the Four Corners area of the United States, with Chaco Canyon being their first site of urban living.
Woodland Indians
From before 1000 BC until 1000 AD the North American continent was inhabited by prehistoric Native Americans of the Woodland era. These were culturally and technically advanced tribes who began permanently inhabiting villages, unlike their nomadic predecessors the Archaic Indians. Woodland Indians are noted for the cultivation of crops in the fertile valleys of North Georgia, creating intricately designed, tempered pottery with the ubiquitous red Georgia clay, building burial mounds and other ceremonial structures and effigies, and developing a system of trade relying on inland waterways and coastal passages.
Mobile societies
(Native Americas)
This type of society is when a group of people moves from one place to another and not settling in one single place probably because of food shortages, religion toleration, or scarse of natural resources.
Agriculture
(Natives)
The first humans to visit what is now Virginia could hunt animals, gather fruits from trees/vines, and pull handfuls of seeds from wild plants. However, the first humans to visit what is now Virginia were not able to plant, nurture, and harvest a crop - because those first humans lacked the expertise and resources to practice agriculture. That changed over time, however.

Through human intervention, several species of wild plants were domesticated in Eastern North America - not in Virginia, but to the west in the Mississippi River watershed. Evidence of the first domestication of plants is found at archeological sites in Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Arkansas, Tennessee, and Kentucky starting about 4,000 years ago (around 2000 B.C.).

About 1,000 years ago (around 1000 A.D.), additional domesticated species - corn, beans, and a new form of squash - were introduced from Mexico/southwestern United States. Fields were located on river floodplains and also in upland areas, where trees were killed in order to create open fields where plants could obtain essential sunlight. When the first Spanish sailors met Virginia natives in the 1500's, and when the English colonists established Jamestown in 1607, Virginia tribes depended upon home-grown food for a significant percentage of their annual diet.
Leif Erikson
Leif grew to be a large and imposing man, one known for his fair judgment and honesty. Having been reared under his father's adventurous hand, Leif had a strong urge to travel and explore. One of his first trips was eastward, to Norway, the homeland of his family. He arrived in Nidaros (Trondheim) and was well received by King Olav Tryggvasson. Leif and his men stayed there for the winter, and were taught the foundations of Christianity. Before they left Norway, Leif, along with all of his men, accepted the faith and were baptised Christians. Returning to Greenland, Leif taught the people of his new-found beliefs. His mother listened to his words and became a Christian. So devout in her belief was she, she asked Eric to have a church built for worship. Grudgingly, Eric fulfilled her request, but he himself never accepted the faith or visited the finished church.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince Henry the Navigator (Dom Henrique) was the son of King João of Portugal, born in 1394. He is most famous for the voyages of discovery that he organised and financed, which eventually led to the rounding of Africa and the establishment of sea routes to the Indies. Henry was also a very devout man, and was Governor of the Order of Christ from 1420 until his death in 1460.
Christopher Colombus
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) was an Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, hoping to find a route to India (in order to trade for spices). He made a total of four trips to the Caribbean and South America during the years 1492-1504.
Ferdinand Magellan
Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Portuguese explorer who led the first expedition that sailed around the Earth (1519-1522). Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean).
The Conquistadores
The Renaissance & Elizabethan Age of Exploration to the New World was dominated by the Spanish Conquistadors. The success of the Spanish Conquistadors in acquiring monopolies on much of the Eastern spice trade and their expeditions to the New World brought great wealth and power to Spain. The new discoveries made by the Spanish Conquistadors brought untold riches in terms of gold and silver and spices and it also brought power and influence.The Spanish word Conquistador means conqueror. The Conquistadors were Spanish Soldiers and Explorers - 'el conquistador'.
Cortes
Hernán Cortés (also spelled Cortez), Marqués Del Valle De Oaxaca (1485-1547) was a Spanish adventurer and conquistador (he was also a failed law student) who overthrew the Aztec empire and claimed Mexico for Spain (1519-21).
Cortes sailed with 11 ships from Cuba to the Yucatan Peninsula to look for gold, silver, and other treasures. Hearing rumors of great riches, Cortés traveled inland and "discovered" Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire. He then brutally killed the Aztec emperor Montezuma and conquered his Aztec Empire of Mexico, claiming all of Mexico for Spain in 1521. Treasures from the Aztecs were brought to Spain, and Cortés was a hero in his homeland. Cortés was appointed governor of the colony of New Spain, but eventually fell out of favor with the royals. He then returned to Spain where he died a few years later.
Franzisco Pizzaro
Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541) was a Spanish conquistador who traveled through much of the Pacific coast of America along Peru. He "discovered" the Incan empire and conquered it brutally and quickly, stealing immense hoards of gold, silver, and other treasures.
Ordinance of Discovery
(Aztecs)
law issued by King Philip II. The importance of this law was to keep track of all political and economic life in newly discovered places.
Catholic Missions
(Natives)
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of religious and military outposts established by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order between 1769 and 1823 to spread the Christian faith among the local Native Americans. The missions represented the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, and gave Spain a valuable toehold in the frontier land. The settlers introduced European livestock, fruits, vegetables, and industry into the California region; however, the Spanish occupation of California also brought with it serious negative consequences to the Native American populations with whom the missionaries came in contact. In the end, the mission had mixed results in its objective to convert, educate, and "civilize" the indigenous population and transforming the natives into Spanish colonial citizens. Today, the missions are among the state's oldest structures and the most-visited historic monuments.
St. Augustine 1565
It was on September 8 of 1565 that America’s oldest city came into existence. St. Augustine, Florida was established long before the pilgrims, the war of independence or the statute of liberty. The city is an often overlooked testament to the long and diverse history of the United States.

Juan Ponce De Leon, the famed Spanish explorer, arrived in St. Augustine in 1513 but it wouldn’t be until 1565 that another famous Spanish sea farer, Don Pedro Menendez de Aviles, took his 600 men onto land and claimed the area for Spain. The name St. Augustine comes from the fact that it was a scant 11 days since the feast day of St. Augustine and the company’s arrival in Florida and the founding of the city took place.

The early history of the St. Augustine includes the building of the Spanish fort four decades before the colony at Jamestown, the sacking of the city by Sir Francis Drake in 1586 and the death of 60 inhabitants by pirates under John Davis in 1668.
Ecomiendas
System of tributory labor established in Spanish America. Developed as a means of securing an adequate and cheap labor supply, the encomienda was first used over the conquered Moors of Spain. Transplanted to the New World, it gave the conquistador control over the native populations by requiring them to pay tribute from their lands, which were "granted" to deserving subjects of the Spanish crown. The natives often rendered personal services as well. In return the grantee was theoretically obligated to protect his wards, to instruct them in the Christian faith, and to defend their right to use the land for their own subsistence. When first applied in the West Indies, this labor system wrought such hardship that the population was soon decimated. This resulted in efforts by the Spanish king and the Dominican order to suppress encomiendas, but the need of the conquerors to reward their supporters led to de facto recognition of the practice. The crown prevented the encomienda from becoming hereditary, and with the New Laws (1542) promulgated by Las Casas Las Casas, Bartolomé de , 1474–1566, Spanish missionary and historian, called the apostle of the Indies. He went to Hispaniola with his father in 1502, and eight years later he was ordained a priest.
The system gradually died out, to be replaced by the repartimiento repartimiento , in Spanish colonial practice, usually, the distribution of indigenous people for forced labor. In a broader sense it referred to any official distribution of goods, property, services, and the like.
And finally debt peonage peonage , system of involuntary servitude based on the indebtedness of the laborer (the peon) to his creditor. It was prevalent in Spanish America, especially in Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, and Peru.
Similar systems of land and labor apportionment were adopted by other colonial powers, notably the Portuguese, the Dutch, and the French.
Pueblo Revolt 1680
August 10, 1680: The Pueblo Rebellion takes place in New Mexico under the leadership of a Tewa named Popé. Popé has arranged for an attack on as many of the Spanish missions as possible to all take place on the same day. Some sources say this happens on August 11th.
Mestizo
A person of mixed racial ancestry (especially mixed European and Native American ancestry)
John Cabot
John Cabot (known as Giovanni Caboto in Italy) was a great Italian navigator and explorer. He was probably born in Genoa, Italy around 1450, but he moved to Venice and that is where he most likely learned to sail.
Richard Hakluyt
born c. 1552, London, Eng.? — died Nov. 23, 1616, England) British geographer. A clergyman, he gave public lectures and became the first professor of modern geography at the University of Oxford. He became acquainted with the most important sea captains and merchants of England and took on the role of publicist for explorers. In 1583 he was sent to Paris as chaplain to the English ambassador and also served as an intelligence officer, collecting information on the Canadian fur trade and on other overseas enterprises. His major publication, The principall Navigations, Voiages and Discoveries of the English nation (1589), described the early English voyages to North America. After 1600 he advised Elizabeth I on colonial affairs, and in 1612 he became a charter member of the Northwest Passage Company.
Doctrine of Predestination
The Doctrine of Predestination has confused and separated Christians along history.To believe in predestination is to believe that we are "saved," born-again, or brought to faith in Jesus Christ because God has chosen us for salvation. Both Luther and Calvin believed in predestination.
The English Reformation
hbafdlvbnjkgnzhdfkjbajkThe English Reformation started with King Henry VIII in 1534 when he declared himself as the Supreme head of the Church of England. However, as early as 1512 John Colet was attacking clergy and prelates alike. Simon Fish's *Supplication of Beggars*, published in 1529 was highly critical of the abuse of indulgences. Willam Tracy's will, which was circulated around 1530 caused quite a stir because of its evangelical flavor.
John Calvin
fbkjfbngabhsjndgkjasnfjghJohn Calvin was born on July 10, 1509 in Noyon, France, Jean Calvin was raised in a staunch Roman Caholic family. The local bishop employed Calvin's father as an administrator in the town's cathedral. The father in turn, wanted John to become a priest. Because of close ties with the bishop noble family, John's playmates and classmates in Noyon (and later in Paris) were aristocratic and culyurally.
Puritan Separatists
The Separatists, however, did not recognize the established church, and some of them, at least, doubted that the Church of England was scriptual or that its administrations were valid. They held that any convenient number of believers might form a church and make or unmake their officers as they saw fit; that over the spiritual affairs of the church no bishop, council, synod, court, or sovereign had authority. Other churches of the same faith might no, unasked, even offer advice. Their pastors had no standing outside the parish. They were Separatists, Independents, or Congregationalists. The first independent church in England, however, was opened in Long in 1616 by the Rev. John Lothrop, afterwards the famous pioneer preacher of Barnstable, Mass., who had been won from Puritanism to Separatism by Robinson in Holland.
The Separatists, though few in number, were cruelly persecuted under Mary (1553-1558). In 1567-1569, under Elizabeth, a London congregation was thrown into prison. The men and women died of the horrors of their prisons. They were allowed while in prison neither clothing or food, and subsisted upon donations that came through their jailers. The few Puritans who were thrown into prison were mostly clergymen, whose prison life was comparatively mild. The Separatists, however, suffered not only from the persecutions of the established church, but encountered also, says Bradford, the sharp invective of the Puritans, who stirred up not only hostility at home, but even prejudiced the reformed clergy of other countries against the Separatist refugees. From 1660 to 1688 sixty thousand non-conformists and dissenters were cast into English prisons.
Elizabeth I
Elizabeth inherited a tattered realm: dissension between Catholics and Protestants tore at the very foundation of society; the royal treasury had been bled dry by Mary and her advisors, Mary's loss of Calais left England with no continental possessions for the first time since the arrival of the Normans in 1066 and many (mainly Catholics) doubted Elizabeth's claim to the throne. Continental affairs added to her problems - France had a strong foothold in Scotland, and Spain, the strongest European nation at the time, posed a threat to the security of the realm. Elizabeth proved most calm and calculating (even though she had a horrendous temper), employing capable and distinguished men to carrying out royal prerogative
Coureurs de Bois
A coureur des bois was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. The coureurs de bois, mostly of French descent, operated during the late 17th century and early 18th century in eastern North America, particularly in New France. Later, a limited number of permits were issued to coureurs des bois who became known as voyageurs.
New Amsterdam
New Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that served as the capital of New Netherland. It later became New York City.
West India Company
The Dutch West India Company was organized by Dutch merchants and chartered by the States General on 3 June 1621. The charter conferred considerable political and commercial powers on the company, including monopolistic trading privileges in parts of Africa, the West Indies, America, and Australia, as well as the rights to make alliances with the natives, build forts, and plant colonies. The company planted settlements at Fort Orange (1624) and Manhattan Island (1625), forming the colony of New Netherland. The director and council of New Netherland acted on the company's instructions and required strict obedience from all colonists. The colony's welfare suffered from this continued despotic control and the company's neglect of colonization efforts in order to focus on trade.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sir Walter Raleigh (c. 1552 – 29 October 1618) was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy and explorer who is also largely known for popularising tobacco in England.
Roanoke
The Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island in Dare County in present-day North Carolina was an enterprise financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh. It was carried out by Ralph Lane and Richard Grenville (Raleigh's cousin) in the late 16th century to establish a permanent English settlement in the Virginia Colony. Between 1585 and 1587, several groups attempted to establish a colony, but either abandoned the settlement or died. The final group of colonists disappeared after three years elapsed without supplies from England during the Anglo-Spanish War. They are known as "The Lost Colony" and their fate is still unknown.
James I
James I of England and VI of Scotland was born in 1566, the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and Henry, Lord Darnley. James had to face difficulties from his earliest years—his mother was an incompetent ruler who quarrelled with politicians and churchmen such as John Knox, and she may have been involved in the murder of her husband Darnley, himself a worthless character. The murder was carried out partly to avenge the slaying of Mary's secretary and possible lover, David Rizzio or Riccio, in which Darnley played a part (before James's birth), and it also enabled Mary to marry her current lover, the Earl of Bothwell. Mary was deposed by the Scottish lords in 1567, and fled to England, where she sought the protective custody of Elizabeth I, who clapped her in prison and had her beheaded twenty years later.
Jamestown
The Jamestown Settlement Colony was the first successful English Settlement on the mainlang of North America. It was established on May 24, 1607 and is important because from that point people started to establish new colonies and with that a complex society.
John Smith
An English adventurer and soldier. He and other settlers established Jamestown on May 24, 1607. And he was best known for the establishment of Jamestown the fist English settlement in North America and further led expeditions exploring the Chesapeake Bay and the New England Coast.
Lord De Lawar
he was one of the governors of Jamestown. after the starving time the remainder of people from Jamestown wanted to go back to England but he stopped them, and forced them to come back. where they started Jamestown again. he was a good governor, and was very determined to bring back Jamestown.
Tobacco
Any of numerous species of plants in the genus Nicotiana, or the cured leaves of several of the species, used after processing in various ways for smoking, snuffing, chewing, and extracting of nicotine. Native to South America, Mexico, and the West Indies, common tobacco (N. tabacum) grows 4 – 6 ft (1 – 2 m) high and bears usually pink flowers and huge leaves, as long as 2 – 3 ft (0.6 – 1 m) and about half as wide. When Christopher Columbus reached the Americas, he reported natives using tobacco as it is used today, as well as in religious ceremonies. Believed to have medicinal properties, tobacco was introduced into Europe and the rest of the world, becoming the chief commodity that British colonists exchanged for European manufactured articles. Awareness of the numerous serious health risks posed by tobacco, including various cancers and a range of respiratory diseases, has led to campaigns against its use, but the number of tobacco users worldwide continues to rise. The World Health Organization estimates that smoking now causes three million deaths annually and within two decades will cause more deaths than any single disease.
Virginia Company
English trading company chartered by James I in 1606 to colonize the eastern coast of North America. Its shareholders were residents of London. Approximately 105 colonists in three ships reached Virginia in 1607 and founded Jamestown. The company expanded its territory with new charters (1609, 1612) and authorized a two-house legislature (1619), including a House of Burgesses. The colony survived many hardships, but the company was divided by internecine disputes and was dissolved in 1624, whereupon Virginia became a royal colony. See also Plymouth Company.
Headright System
The arrival of indentured servants in the American colonies addressed a labor shortage that emerged in the early 1600s. In 1618, the Virginia Company, a joint-stock enterprise that encouraged the development of Virginia, adopted a new charter based on the “headright system”: Englishmen who could pay their own Atlantic crossing were granted 50 acres of land; each of their sons and servants were also granted an additional 50 acres. Other colonies were also developed under the headright system, with the land amounts varying by colony. Soon there were more farms than there was labor to work the fields. The colonists solved this problem through the system of indentured servitude.
Powhatans
Powhatan is a historical figure who married John Smith and helped the new immigrants that arrived in the tribes
Maryland/Calverts
(born c. 1606, England — died June 9, 1647, St. Mary's, Md.) First governor of the Maryland colony. He was the younger brother of Cecil Calvert, the colony's proprietor. In 1633 he was sent from England to establish a settlement at St. Mary's. He gradually allowed limited legislative initiative in the colony's assembly. He lost a land conflict with William Claiborne and was forced to leave Maryland (1644 – 46); aided by colonists, including Margaret Brent, he returned to reinstate his proprietorial rule.
Proprietary Rule
Any of certain early North American colonies, such as Carolina and Pennsylvania, organized in the 17th century in territories granted by the English Crown to one or more proprietors who had full governing rights.
Toleration Act
Toleration Act, 1689. Though the Act did not grant whole-hearted toleration, it has been hailed as ‘the grand landmark … in the history of dissent’, since it legally sanctioned schism. Those unable to accept Anglican liturgy could worship in unlocked meeting-houses, licensed by the bishop, provided that the minister subscribed to the Thirty-Nine Articles except on baptism and church government. Catholics and unitarians were excluded.
Bacon's Rebellion
In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians.
Plymouth Plantations
Written over a period of years by the leader of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation is the single most complete authority for the story of the Pilgrims and the early years of the Colony they founded. Written between 1620 and 1647, the journal describes the story of the Pilgrims from 1608, when they settled in the Netherlands through the 1620 Mayflower voyage, until the year 1647. The book ends with a list, written in 1650, of Mayflower passengers and what happened to them.
Mayflower Compact
Created a legal authority and an assembly in Plymouth (first steps towards democracy). Asserted that government's power derived from people, not God.
Willam Bradford
Before beginning his legal career Bradford served in the Revolutionary War from 1776 to 1779, fought in numerous battles, including Valley Forge, and emerged with the rank of colonel in the Continental army. After his tour of duty, he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar and established a legal practice in Yorktown, Pennsylvania.
Colonial Currency
The Currency Act is the name of several acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America. The acts sought to protect British merchants and creditors from being paid in depreciated colonial currency. The policy created tension between the colonies and Great Britain, and was cited as a grievance by colonists early in the American Revolution.
John Winthrop
John Winthrop obtained a royal charter, along with other wealthy Puritans, from King Charles I for the Massachusetts Bay Company and led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630.He was elected the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony the year before. He was specially influential around the 1600s because of his contributions.
Theocratic Society
Theocracy is a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler, or in a higher sense, a form of government in which a state is governed by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided. In Common Greek, "theocracy" means a rule by God. For believers, theocracy is a form of government in which divine power governs an earthly human state, either in a personal incarnation or, more often, via religious institutional representatives, replacing or dominating civil government.Theocratic governments enact theonomic laws.
Roger William
Roger William was born in London, circa 1603, the son of James and Alice (Pemberton) Williams. James, the son of Mark and Agnes (Audley) Williams was a "merchant Tailor" (an importer and trader) and probably a man of some importance. His will, proved 19 November 1621, left, in addition to bequests to his "loving wife, Alice," to his sons, Sydrach, Roger and Robert, and to his daughter Catherine, money and bread to the poor in various sections of London.
Anne Hutchinson
A religious dissenter who challenged the principles of Massachusett's religious and political system by claiming she had a special covenant with God. Her ideas became known as the heresy of Antinomianism, a belief that Christians are not bound by moral law. She was latter banned from the count
Pequot War
After Pequots attacked Puritan settlement, killing nine, the colonists responded by burning Pequot village, killing 400.
King Philips War
Bloodiest English-Native American conflict of the time. Leader of the Pokanokets, Metacomet, led attacks on several expanding colonist settlements. He formed an alliance with other tribes, but soon they were defeated due to lack of supplies.
The Narragansetts
The Narragansett Indians are a native people who lived on the Narragansett Bay and in western Rhode Island. At around the beginning of the 17th Century there were about 10,000 Narragansett people. Over the next hundred years, however, that number was to be cut to just 500. War with the British and disease were the killers. In just one battle in 1675, the Narragansett lost 20 % of their population
English Civil War
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. The first (1642–46) and second (1648–49) civil wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third war (1649–51) saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament. The Civil War ended with the Parliamentary victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651.
Middle Colonies
The nine colonies whose early history we have traced were all established by Englishmen; but we have now to notice one, destined in future to be the most populous and wealthy community of them all, which was founded and controlled for forty years by a different people -- the Dutch. The people of Holland,1 after a long and terrible war with Spain, had won religious and political independence. With the fall of the Spanish Armada the naval power of the Dutch began to rise, and by the coming of peace in 1609, the Briton alone could rival the Hollander upon the sea.
Quakers
They believed human religious institutions were, for the most part, unnecessary.
- They believed they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible.
- They were pacifists and declined to show customary deference to their alleged social superiors.
- Their aggressiveness in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and America.
- They opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native Americans.
- Elements of this culture would play a role in shaping the characterizations of a United States that valued independence and social equality.
William Penn
William Penn (October 14, 1644 – July 30, 1718) was an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U. S. State of Pennsylvania. He was an early champion of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was planned and developed.
Charter of Liberties
Charter of Liberties, drafted in 1683 by the first representative assembly in New York as an instrument of provincial government. The hallmark of Governor Thomas Dongan's administration, the charter de-fined the colony's form of government, affirmed basic political rights, and guaranteed religious liberty for Christians. It divided the colony into twelve counties, or "shires," that were to serve as the basic units of local government. Freeholders from each shire would elect representatives to serve in the assembly.
Black Codes
Restrictions on the freedom of former slaves, passed by Southern governments
Holly Experiment
The "Holy Experiment" was an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
California 1760's
Probably something important happened this year.
James Oglethorpe
When he was a boy, James Edward Oglethorpe's oldest brother and father went off to fight in Queen Anne's War (War of Spanish Succession, 1702-1714), never to return. James, seventh of nine children in a large, wealthy family, began to prepare for a military career at an early age. This was a turbulent time in the history of England and, in fact, the entire continent of Europe. The lessons learned by young Oglethorpe and the people he met would play an active roll in shaping the man and the colony of Georgia.
Mercantilism
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
The Navigation Act
The navigation act were efforts to put the theory of mercantilism into actual practice. In 1650 the parliamentreacted to the increasing trade of the Dutch and from there new laws that enforce or limit navigation in some places. The navigation act helped to spread ideas and to learn new things
Sir Edmond Andros
Sir Edmund Andros biography Sir Edmund Andros received a commission to be governor of New England. He arrived at Boston on the 19th of December, 1686. The next day his commission was published, and he took on him the administratioSir Edmund Andros biography Sir Edmund Andros received a commission to be governor of New England. He arrived at Boston on the 19th of December, 1686. The next day his commission was published, and he took on him the administratioSir Edmund Andros received a commission to be governor of New England. He arrived at Boston on the 19th of December, 1686. The next day his commission was published, and he took on him the administration of government.
The Glorious Revolution
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (VII of Scotland and II of Ireland) in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians with an invading army led by the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange) who, as a result, ascended the English throne as William III of England together with his wife Mary II of England.
Willaim Bradford
William Bradford was born in 1590 in the Yorkshire farming community of Austerfield, England. In his early childhood, both parents died. The boy was shuttled among several relatives, never staying long anywhere.
Cambridge Agreement
The Cambridge Agreement was an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Agreement led directly to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts.
Church of England (Anglican)
The roots of the Church of England go back to the time of the Roman Empire when a Christian church came into existence in what was then the Roman province of Britain. The early Christian writers Tertullian and Origen mention the existence of a British church in the third century AD and in the fourth century British bishops attended a number of the great councils of the Church such as the Council of Arles in 314 and the Council of Rimini in 359. The first member of the British church whom we know by name is St Alban, who, tradition tells us, was martyred for his faith on the spot where St Albans Abbey now stands.
Covenenant Theology
Covenant theology (also known as Covenantalism or Federal theology or Federalism) is a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. It uses the theological concept of covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology.
Halfway Covenant
The Half-Way Covenant was a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth.
Thomas Hooker
Thomas Hooker (July 5, 1586 – July 7, 1647) was a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. Hooker also had a role in creating the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut", one of the world's first written constitutions.
Saybrook Plattform
Saybrook Platform refers to conservative religious proposals adopted at Saybrook, Connecticut in September 1708. The document attempted to stem the tide of disunity among the established Congregational churches and restore discipline among both the clergy and their congregations. In its "Fifteen Articles" the platform provided for "associations" of pastors and elders and "consociations" of churches, each with broad powers to rule in disputes between churches, to proceed against erring churches and pastors, and to license the latter. The Platform was but a brief conservative victory against a non-conformist tide which had begun with the Halfway Covenant and would culminate in the Great Awakening.
Joint Stock Company
a type of business entity: it is a type of corporation or partnership involving two or more legal persons. In most countries, a joint stock company offers the protection of limited liability;
Cavaliers (1642-1647)
"Cavalier" is chiefly associated with the Royalist supporters of King Charles I in his struggle with Parliament in the English Civil War. It first appears as a term of reproach and contempt, applied by the opponents of King Charles I during the summer of 1642
John Lock
John Locke ( 29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704), widely known as the Father of Liberalism, was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Francis Bacon, he is equally important to social contract theory. His work had a great impact upon the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries. His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the American Declaration of Independence.