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93 Cards in this Set

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1)What is the first step in the product development process?


A) projectcustomer needs


B) generateproduct ideas


C)process technology selection


D)manufacturing system design


E)marketing plan design

B) generate product ideas

2)During the ________ stage of the project development process, external andinternal sources brainstorm new concepts.


A) productmarketing and supply chain preparation


B) technologydevelopment for process selection


C)customer future needs projection


D)product idea generation


E)technology selection for product development

D) product idea generation


3)Which of the following is an internal source for product ideas?


A)management


B)industry experts


C)competitors


D)inventors


E)customers

A) management

4)Which of the following is an external source for product ideas?


A)marketing


B)employee suggestions


C)research and development


D)management


E)industry experts

E) industry experts

5)R&D-generated ideas can be differentiated from marketing-generated ideas inthat the latter ________.


A)tend to be risky


B)are less aligned with customer needs


C)build on existing designs


D)tend to be groundbreaking


E)tend to be technologically innovative

C) build on existing designs

6)During ________ stage of the product development process, preliminary work canbe performed to identify key quality characteristics and potential forvariability with each of the different materials.


A)product marketing and supply chain preparation


B)technology selection for product development


C)technology development for process selection


D)final product definition


E)manufacturing system design/dov������

B) technology selection for product development

7)The ________ stage of the product development process often requires the design of after-sales processes such as maintenance, warranties, and repair processes that occur after the customer owns the product.


A)final product definition


B)product design and evaluation


C)manufacturing system design


D) technology selection for product development


E) product marketing and supply chain preparation

E) product marketing and supply chain preparation

8)The ________ stage of the product development process requires definition of the product architecture, the design, production, testing of sub-assemblies, and testing of the system for production.


A)manufacturing system design


B)final product definition


C)product design and evaluation


D)technology development for process selection


E)technology selection for product development

C) product design and evaluation

9)In the product development process, the acronym PDS stands for ________.


A)Product Development System


B)Product Distribution System


C)Product Design and Selection


D)Product Design Specification


E)Product Definition and Specification

D)Product Design Specification

10)The ________ stage of the product development process involves the selection of the process technologies that will result in a low-cost, high-quality product.


A) final product definition


B) technology selection for product development


C)technology development for process selection


D)product design and evaluation


E)manufacturing system design

E)manufacturing system design

11)What is the final step in the product development process?


A)project customer needs


B)manufacture, delivery, and use


C)final product definition


D)product evaluation


E)manufacturing system design

B)manufacture, delivery, and use

12)The acronym QFD stands for ________.


A)Quality Function Deployment


B)Quality Feasibility Development


C)Quality Function Design


D)Quality Factors for Development


E)Quality Feasibility Data

A)Quality Function Deployment

13)________ describes a method for translating customer requirements intofunctional design.


A) Manufacturingsystem design


B) Final productdefinition


C)Quality function deployment


D)Product design specification


E)Customer future projection

C)Quality function deployment

14)What is the first step in performing quality function deployment?


A) prioritizetechnical requirements


B) identify thecorrelations between design elements in the roof of the house


C)prioritize customer requirements


D)develop a listing of technical design elements along the roof of the house


E)develop a list of customer requirements

E)develop a list of customer requirements

15)A particular customer requirement has a strong association with a technicalrequirement, an importance of 6, a target value of 3, and a sales point valueof 2. The absolute weight of this customer requirement is ________.


A)1


B)6


C)9


D)18


E)36

E)36

16)A particular customer requirement is associated with a technical requirement,has an importance of 3, a target value of 5, and a sales point value of 2. Theabsolute weight of this customer requirement is ________.


A)15


B)30


C)6


D)10


E) 25

B)30

17)A particular customer requirement is associated with a technical requirement,has an importance of 3, a target value of 1, and a sales point value of 3. Theabsolute weight of this customer requirement is ________.


A)9


B)45


C)6


D)90


E)81

A)9

18)A particular customer requirement has a strong association with a technical requirement,an importance of 9, a target value of 3, and a sales point value of 1. Theabsolute weight of this customer requirement is ________.


A)1


B)3


C)9


D)27


E)243

D)27

19)________ is used to develop a computer compatible mathematical description of a part.


A) Geometricmodeling


B) Engineeringanalysis


C)Multilevel prototyping


D)Process modeling


E)Concurrent engineering

A) Geometric modeling

20)________ involves the usage of heat-transfer calculations, stress calculations,or differential equations to determine the dynamic behavior of the system beingdesigned.


A) Processmodeling


B) Geometricmodeling


C)Concurrent engineering


D)Engineering analysis


E)Multilevel prototyping

D)Engineering analysis

21)Examining a design to see if different components in a product occupy the samespace is called ________.


A) processevaluation


B) design analysis


C)interference checking


D)multilevel evaluation


E)product testing

C)interference checking

22)The ________ component of a CAD system allows for the cataloguing and standardization of parts and components for complex products.


A)group technology


B)geometric modelling


C)multilevel prototyping


D)product testing


E)concurrent engineering

A)group technology

23)________ refers to the performance of all the design process stepssimultaneously.


A) Just-in-timeengineering


B) Leanengineering


C)Concurrent engineering


D)Reengineering


E)Reverse engineering

C)Concurrent engineering

24)________ refers to the differences in products that are produced and marketedby a single firm at any given time.


A) Change


B) Criticality


C)Nonuniformity


D)Variety


E)Differentiation

D)Variety

25)________ is the magnitude of the differences in a product when measured at twodifferent times.


A)Criticality


B)Variety


C)Differentiation


D)Nonuniformity


E)Change

E)Change

26)________ products are new products using similar technologies that can coexistin a family of products.


A) Contiguous


B) Complementary


C)Differentiated


D)Concurrent


E)Variable

B) Complementary

27)________ means to design products so that they are cost-effective and simple tobuild.


A) Design formaintenance


B) Design forcontrol


C)Design for reliability


D)Design for engineering


E)Design for manufacture

E)Design for manufacture

28)________ means standardizing parts, modularizing, and using as few parts aspossible in a design.


A) Designing forengineering


B) Designing forreliability


C)Designing for manufacture


D)Designing for simplicity


E)Designing for control

D)Designing for simplicity

29)Over-the-wall syndrome refers to the difficulties that arise when ________


A) different typesof engineers work in totally different departments


B) firms integratefinancial, planning, and control systems into a single architecture


C)translating customer requirements into functional design


D)environmental issues become key considerations for companies designing products


E)the design products become complicated to build

A) different typesof engineers work in totally different departments

30)________ systems are used to integrate financial, planning, and control systemsinto a single architecture.


A) Product datamanagement


B) Enterprise resourceplanning


C)Computer-aided design


D)Business process management


E)Information technology management

B) Enterprise resource planning

31)________ reliability is defined as the propensity for a part to fail over agiven time.


A) System


B) Concurrent


C)Component


D)Process


E)Perpetual

C)Component

32)What is the first step in failure modes and effects analysis?


A)assign each component an identifier


B)list functions for each part


C)identify highest risks


D)list one or two failure modes for each functionE)estimate likelihood of failure

A)assign each component an identifier

33)What is the final step in failure modes and effects analysis?


A)describe effects of each failure mode


B)estimate likelihood of failure


C)eliminate or reduce highest risks


D)estimate failure detection


E)determine hazard likelihood and categorize

C)eliminate or reduce highest risks

34)________ refers to how often a failure will occur, how easy it is to diagnose,and whether it can be fixed.


A)Reliability


B)Criticality


C)Traceability


D)Feasibility


E)Maintainability

B)Criticality

35)A method of manufacturing that minimizes waste and pollution is referred to as________.


A) renewablemanufacturing


B) cleanmanufacturing


C)green manufacturing


D)ecofriendly manufacturing


E)sustainable manufacturing

C)green manufacturing

36)The life-cycle approach to product design has led to practices known as________.


A) design foraesthetics, design for performance, and design for quality


B) design for easeof manufacture, design for optimal pricing, and design for quality


C)design for cost containment, design for quality, and design for conformance


D)design for reuse, design for disassembly, and design for remanufacture


E)design for reliability, design for dependability, and design for conformance

D)design for reuse, design for disassembly, and design for remanufacture

37)The principles for ________ include using fewer parts and fewer materials, andusing snap-fits instead of screws.


A) design fordisassembly


B) design forconformance


C)design for reuse


D)design for remanufacturing


E)design for performance

A) design for disassembly

38)Product idea generation is the first step in the project development process.

Answer: TRUE

39)The primary source for external product ideas is research and development.

FALSE


Correct: The primary source for external product ideas is the customer.

40)Industry experts are external sources for product ideas.

TRUE

41)Marketing-generated ideas tend to be groundbreaking, risky, and technologicallyinnovative as compared to R&D-generated ideas.

FALSE


Correct: Marketing-generated ideas tend to be more incremental—that is, they build on existing designs—and are better aligned with customer needs.

42)R&D-generated ideas tend to be more incremental than marketing-generatedideas, and are better aligned with customer needs.

FALSE


Correct: R&D-generated ideas tend to be groundbreaking, risky, and technologicallyinnovative

43)During the technology selection for product development stage of the product developmentprocess, preliminary work can be performed to identify key qualitycharacteristics and potential for variability with each of the differentmaterials.

TRUE

44)Manufacturing system design is the selection of the product technologies thatwill result in a low-cost, high-quality product.

TRUE

45)Quality function deployment (QFD) describes a method for translating customerrequirements into functional design.

TRUE

46)The first step in performing quality function deployment is to develop alisting of technical design elements along the roof of the house.

FALSE


Correct: The first step in performing quality function deployment is to develop a list of customer requirements.

47)Customer requirements with high competitive assessments and low importance arecandidates for improvement.

FALSE


Correct: Customer requirements with low competitiveassessments and high importance are candidates for improvement.

48)Geometric modeling is used to develop a hand-drawn mathematical description ofa part.

FALSE


Correct: Geometric modeling is used to develop a computer-compatiblemathematical description of a part

49)Examining a design to see if different components in a product occupy the samespace is called interference checking.

TRUE

50)Automated drafting results in the creation of a final drawing of the designedproduct and its components.

TRUE

51)The multilevel prototyping component of the CAD system allows for the cataloguing and standardization of parts and components for complex products.

FALSE


Correct: It is the group technology component that allows for the cataloging and standardization of parts and components for complex products.

52)Computer-aided inspection is performed by infrared and non-contact sensors.

TRUE

53) Re-engineering refers to the performance of all the design process steps simultaneously.

FALSE


Correct: (1) A method for making rapid, radical changes to a company’s organization and processes; (2) taking apart a competitor’s products to see how they are designed and then designing similar products.

54)Concurrent engineering leads to increased interaction with the customer.

TRUE

55)As product life cycles become longer, product variety and change become muchmore important to a successful competitor.

FALSE


Correct: as product life cycles shorten, product variety and change become much more important to the successful competitor because complementary products are needed to consume productive capacity.

56)Variety refers to the differences in products that are produced and marketed bya single firm at any given time.

TRUE

57)Change is the magnitude of the differences in a product when measured at twodifferent times.

TRUE

58)Complementary products are new products using different technologies that cancoexist in a family of products.

FALSE


Correct: complementary products arenew products using similar technologies that can coexist in a family of products.

59)Design for manufacture means to design products so that they are cost-effectiveand simple to build.

TRUE

60)Designing for reliability means standardizing parts, modularizing, and using asfew parts as possible in a design.

FALSE


Correct: Designing for simplicity means standardizing parts, modularizing, and using as few components as possible in a design.

61)The over-the-wall syndrome refers to difficulties that arise when the designproducts become complicated to build.

FALSE


Correct: The over-the-wall syndrome refers to difficulties that arise when different types of engineers work in totally different departmentsin the same firm.

62)The over-the-wall syndrome is demonstrated by looking at the design processsequentially.

TRUE

63)Design for manufacture methods are designed to radically increase cycle times.

FALSE


Correct: DFM methods is the principle of designing products so that they are cost effective and easy to make.

64)Enterpriseresource planning systems are used to integrate financial, planning, andcontrol systems into a single architecture.

TRUE

65)System reliability is defined as the propensity for a part to fail over a giventime.

FALSE


Correct: System reliability refers to the probability that asystem of components will perform the intended function over a specified product life.

66)Component reliability is computed from the aggregation of multiple components.

FALSE


Correct: Component reliability is defined as the propensityfor a part to fail over a given time.

67)Failure modes and effects analysis begins at the highest level of detail towhich the system is designed and works downward.

FALSE


Correct: It is a bottom-up analysis beginning at the lowestlevel of detail to which the system is designed and works upward.

68)Failure modes and effects analysis results in reduction in product developmentcost.

TRUE

69)The first step in failure modes and effects analysis is to estimate thelikelihood of failure.

FALSE


Correct: The first FMEA step is to give each component in the system a unique identifier so thatnone of the parts will be overlooked in the analysis.

70)Failure modes and effects analysis is an analytical tool that graphicallyrenders the combinations of faults that lead to failure of a system.

FALSE


Correct: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) systematically considers each component of asystem—identifying, analyzing, and documenting the possible failure modes within that systemand the effects of each failure on the system

71)The primary goal of failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis is todevelop priorities for corrective action based on estimated risk.

TRUE

72)Criticality prioritizes how the design team should be spending its resources.

TRUE

73)Product traceability increases product liability relating to safety hazards.

FALSE


Correct: Because companies are liable for the productsthey create, it is important to be able to identify the origins of defective products or componentsthrough product traceability procedures

74)A method of manufacturing that minimizes waste and pollution is referred to asgreen manufacturing.

TRUE

75)The principles for design for reuse include using fewer parts and fewermaterials, and using snap-fits instead of screws.

FALSE


Correct: The principles for design for reuse include designing products so that components can be used in later generations of products.

76)State the nine phases of a product development process.

The design process includes nine phases thatare interrelated:


1. Productidea generation


2. Customerfuture needs projection


3. Technologyselection for product development


4. Technologydevelopment for process selection


5. Finalproduct definition


6. Productmarketing and supply chain preparation


7. Productdesign and evaluation


8. Manufacturingsystem design


9. Productmanufacture, delivery, and use

77)What is quality function deployment (QFD)?

Quality function deployment (QFD) describes amethod for translating customer requirements into functional design. Sometimesthis process of translation is referred to as the v oice of the customer. Thequality function deployment approach was developed by Dr. S. Mizuno, a formerprofessor of the Tokyo Institute of Technology.

78)What are the steps in performing quality function deployment?

Following are the steps in performing qualityfunction deployment:


1. Developa list of customer requirements.


2. Developa listing of technical design elements along the roof of the house.


3. Demonstratethe relationships between the customer requirements and technical design elements.


4. Identify the correlations between design elements in the roof of the house.


5. Perform a competitive assessment of the customer requirements.


6. Prioritize customer requirements.


7. Prioritize technical requirements.


8. Final evaluation.

79)How are the values for absolute and relative weights established?

The value for the absolute weight is the sumof the products of the relationship between customer and technical requirementsand the importance to the customer columns. The value for relative weight isthe sum of the products of the relationship between customer requirements andtechnical requirements and the customer requirements absolute weights.

80)What are multi-user CAD systems?

An important advance in CAD systems has beenthe advent of multi-user CAD systems. Using a common database in a network,multiple designers in locations worldwide can work on a design simultaneouslyaround the clock. Consider a multinational corporation developing a newproduct. When the U.S.designers sleep, Asian and European designers work. When the U.S. designersreturn to work, they can see the progress that has been made overnight.

81)Explain the use of CAD systems in geometric design and engineering analysis.

CAD systems are used in geometric design andengineering analysis.Geometricmodeling is used to develop a computer-compatible mathematical description of apart. The image developed is typically a wire-frame drawing of a component.This part may appear in two dimensions, as a two-dimensional drawing of athree-dimensional object, or in full three-dimensional view with complexgeometry.Engineeringanalysis may involve many different engineering tests such as heat-transfercalculations, stress calculations, or differential equations to determine thedynamic behavior of the system being designed. Analysis-of-mass-propertiesfeatures in CAD systems automatically identify properties of a designed objectsuch as weight, area, volume, center of gravity, and moment of inertia. CADsystems allow for the automatic calculation of these properties.

82)Define interference checking with an example.

Examining a design to see if differentcomponents in a product occupy the same space is called interference checking.Interference checking is of major importance in design of airplanes. Hundredsof pipes and thousands of wires occupy the walls of the aircraft. Interferencechecking in design review ensures that designs are feasible. This is especiallyimportant for airplane makers because so many engineers are participating inthe design.

83)What is the group technology component of a CAD system?

An important component of a CAD system is thegroup technology component that allows for the cataloging and standardizationof parts and components for complex products. Standard parts can result infewer suppliers, simpler inventory, and less variability in processes.

84)Explain concurrent engineering and state its benefits.

If the design process steps are performedsequentially, the design process will be very time-consuming. Therefore, thesteps are performed simultaneously as often as possible. This approach iscalled concurrent engineering and has been very helpful in speeding up thedesign life cycle.Thebenefits of concurrent engineering primarily include communication among groupmembers and speed. By working on products and processes simultaneously, the groupmakes fewer mistakes, and the time to get the concept to market is reduceddrastically. The team concept joins people from various disciplines, whichenhance communication and the cross-fertilization of ideas.Anotherbenefit of concurrent engineering is increased interaction with the customer.Often customers are included in concurrent engineering teams to give immediatefeedback on product designs.

85)State the importance of complementary products.

Complementary products are new products usingsimilar technologies that can coexist in a family of products.Complementaryproducts are needed for two reasons. First, product obsolescence requires thatproducts be updated. Second, some products have seasonal demand necessitatingcounterseasonal products.

86)State any three considerations in a design.

There are many things to consider whendesigning products. One of the biggest considerations is design for manufacture(DFM). Design for manufacture means to design products so that they arecost-effective and simple to build.Anotheraspect is designing for reliability. It makes little sense to design a productthat is capable and stable but not reliable.Productdesigns must be simple. Designing for simplicity means standardizing parts,modularizing, and using as few parts as possible in a design.

87)Explain the over-the-wall syndrome.

In the old world of designing products, thereexisted a hierarchy of engineers. At the top of this hierarchy was the productdesign engineer. Lower down the hierarchy were the process design engineers.Often these different engineers worked in totally different departments. Thefact that they were in different departments often impeded communication. Thisorganizational problem has been referred to as the over-the-wall syndrome.

88)State the importance of the product data management (PDM) tool?

An important component of design software isthe product data management (PDM) tool. PDM is a general extension oftechniques commonly known as engineering data management, document management,and other similar names. PDM helps manage both product data and the productdevelopment process by tracking the masses of data needed to design,manufacture, support, and maintain products.

89)Differentiate between component reliability and system reliability.

Component reliability is defined as thepropensity for a part to fail over a given time. System reliability refers tothe probability that a system of components will perform the intended functionover a specified product life. It is important to recognize the differencebetween component reliability and system reliability. The levels of measurementare different for system and component reliability. When we talk of componentreliability, we refer to a finite aspect of the overall product. Systemreliability is computed from the aggregation of multiple components.

90)What are the benefits of using failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)?

Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)systematically considers each component of a system, identifying, analyzing,and documenting the possible failure modes within a system and the effects ofeach failure on the system. Some benefits that can be derived through the useof FMEA include:


- Improvementof the safety, quality, and the reliability of products


- Improvementof a company's image and its competitiveness


- Increasedsatisfaction from a user standpoint


- Reductionin product development cost


- Recordof actions taken to reduce a product risk

91)State the nine-step process of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA).

State the nine-step process of failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA).Answer: Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)uses a nine-step process:• Assigneach component an identifier.• Listfunctions for each part.• Listone or two failure modes for each function.• Describeeffects of each failure mode.• Determinehazard likelihood and categorize.• Estimatelikelihood of failure.• Estimatefailure detection.• Identifyhighest risks.• Eliminateor reduce highest risks.

92)Describe the failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA).

Failure modes, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) is an extensive but simple method for identifying ways in which an engineered system could fail. As in FMEA, failures, effects, and causes are identified. FMECA rates failure modes by ranking each possible mode according to both the probabilities of its occurrence and the severity of its effects. The primary goal of FMECA is to develop priorities for corrective action based on estimated risk. FMECA is used to analyze a probable cause of product failure, to determine how the problem affects a customer, to identify the probable manufacturing or assembly processes responsible, to identify which process control variable to focus on for prevention detection, and to quantify the effects on the customer.

93)Differentiate between design for reuse and design for disassembly.

Design for reuse refers to designing productsso they can be used in later generations of products. The principles for design for disassembly include using fewer parts and fewermaterials, using snap-fits instead of screws, making assembly efficient andimproving disposal, using design for disassembly experts in concurrent designteams, and eliminating waste through better design.to iden