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62 Cards in this Set

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Alpha(1-4) bond glucose is hydrolyzed by...

amylase

Glucose beta bonds can not...

be digested by amylase

carbohydrate absorption is very...

efficient - nearly 100% is absorbed

glucose and galactose are transported through membranes via...

facillitated diffusion and active transport

what enhances glucose absorption?...

sodium

high blood glucose levels stimulate insulin secretion which causes GLUT2 to...

move away from the brushborder to reduce further gluose absorption

fructose is taken into the cell by...


and sent into the blood stream by...

into cell by GLUT5


into the blood by GLUT2

Glucose, galactose and fructose enter the blood stream by which vein...


then are stored or metabolized in...

into the blood stream by the portal vein


stored or metabloized in the liver

approximately what percent of glucose enters the peripheral bloodstream..

60%

GLUT 4 is important because...

it is the primary means by which insulin regulates cellular uptake of glucose in muscle and adipose tissue

GLUT 5 is important because...

it is specifically used for the transportation of fructose and will not transport glucose


-this is primarily expressed in the small intestine

Exercise in relation to GLUT4...

GLUT4 storage vesical releases GLUT4 from muscle and adipose tissue, this is good for glucose storage control

Type of diabetes in which is considered an autoimmune disease and glucokinase is not induced...

TYPE 1

Type of diabetes in which there is insulin present but the receptor does not process the insulin, ie; low insulin induction

TYPE 2

Glucose in skeletal muscle is used for...

energy

Glucose in the liver...

enters the blood stream

Glucose-6-phosphatase is present in what only...

the liver and kidney

Glycogenolysis is....

the breakdown of glycogen to glucose

During what kind of period will glycogenolysis occur...

during an energy deficit

What does positive regulation of glycogenolysis mean...

hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, and cAMP stimulate the process of glycogenolysis to produce more glucose

What does negative regulation of glycogenolysis mean...

increased ATP means high energy stores for which we do not need more ATP producing glucose from glycogenolysis

Under what type of stress is glycogenolysis increased?

metabolic stress

What is glyolysis....

the process of converting glucose to pyruvate

what is G3P

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

during exercise what is the resulting product of glycolysis...

lactate

total starch content of food:


amylose contributes...


amylopectin contributes...

15-20% amylose


80-85% amylopectin

Name of the group of enzymes that hydrolyze poly-, tri-, and disaccharides...

called glycosidases or carbohydrases

the key enzyme for polysaccharide digestion in the mouth is salvilary alpha-amylase which hydrolyzes alpha(1-4)glycosidic linkages....which bonds are resistant to this enzyme....

beta(1-4)bonds of cellulose


beta(1-4)bonds of lactose


alpha(1-6)linkages that form branch points in the starch amylopectin


are resistant to the enzymes alpha-amylase

estimated daily amounts of glucose and fructose on the intestine in grams

5,400g/day of glucose


4,800g/day of fructose

Amylose is digested by salivary alpha-amylase to form...

dextrins

amylopectin is digested by alpha-amylase to form....

dextrins

To what extent is amylose and amylopectin digested within the stomach...

there is no further digestion of amylose and amylopectin within the stomach

within the small intestine amylose is digested by pancreatic alpha-amylase which hydrolyzes alpha(1-4) glycosidic bonds, dextrins are broken down into.....

maltose


amylose -> maltose

within the small intestine amylopectin is digsted by pancreatic alpha-amylase which hydrolyzes alpha(1-4) glycosidic bonds which produces

limit dextrins, maltotriose, isomaltose and maltose

on the brush border of the small instestine maltose is hydrolyzed by maltase(brush border enzyme) which forms....

free glucose

on the brush border of the small intestine maltose, maltotriose and isomaltose are hydrolyzed in the brush border by maltase or isomaltase(alpha-dextrinase) to form ....

glucose

alpha-dextrinase is the sole carbohydrase capable of hydrolysing...

alpha(1-6) glycosidic bonds

which GLUT has a high affinity for fructose?

GLUT5

which GLUT is the prime isoform which can cross the blood brain barrier...

GLUT1

the storeage form for glucose, glycogen is synthesized through the process called

glycogenesis

where is the major site of glycogen synthesis and storage

the liver

what is the other major site of glycogen storage

skeletal muscle

what percentage of muscle stores account for the bodies glycogen stores...

75%

glycogen stores within the muscle are a direct energy source for that muscle fiber and can not contribute to....

blood glucose levels

which enzymes catalyze alpha-D-glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, in the muscle and liver...

a-D-glucose -> glucose-6-p via kexokinase in the muscle


&


a-D-glucose->glucose-6-p via glucokinase in the liver

the activated compound of glucose-1-phosphate is created by...

reaction of Uridine Triphosphate(UTP) -> glucose-1-phosphate = activated compund

UDP glucose + ............ = unbranched glycogen which can then turn into branched glycogen

Glycogenin primer

glycolysis is...

the oathways by which glucose is degraded into two 3-carbon units called pyruvate

in anaerobic conditions pyruvate is converted to...


under aerobic conditions pyruvate is transported into the mitochondria to participate in the....

converted to lactate


participate in the citric acid cycle

The hexokinase and glucokinase reactions both require...

ATP

phosphofructoknase reaction is irreversible and is negetively regulated by ...

ATP and TCA citrate


meaning the more ATP you have the less this reaction will occur

lactate dehydrogenase reaction occurs during....

exercise and is a reversible reaction

At which step does all dietary glucose enter the liver and commits to glycolysis...

STEP 13

1 glucose molecule becomes how many pyruvate during glycolysis

2 pyruvate

what are the three paths of pyruvate?

1.) In anaerobic conditions pyruvate becomes lactate


2.) In aerobic conditions pyruvate enters the TCA or krebs cycle in mitochondria to create energy


3.)Pyruvate undergoes transamination to become the amino acid alanine

what is the complete equation of the oxidation of glucose?

C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 ----> 6O2 + 6H2O + Energy(ATP)


this happens by a combination of glycolysis and TCA cyle

What two important products are produced via the pentose phosphate pathway....

1.) pentose phosphates ie ribose needed for DNA and RNA synthesis


2.) NADPH , used for synthesis of fatty acids

Amino acids can sometimes convert to TCA intermediates in the mitochondria and leave in the form of malate which can then be converted to oxaloacetate in the cytosol and enter as PEP in which step of glycolysis....

STEP 10

cori cycle is...

a process by which takes muscle derived lactate and converting it to glucose in the liver ----> muscle glycolysis

the cori cycle supplies glucose during...

a glucose deficit

a triglyceride minus the fatty acids =

glycereol

Glycerol enters the glycolysis pathway at which point...

at the DHAP point of the glycolysis pathway