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47 Cards in this Set

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appendages

sprout from surfaces; two major groups: those for movement (flagella & axial filaments) and those that provide attachments or channels (fimbriae & pili)

flagellum

provide motility for bacteria

filament

helical structure composed of protein called flagellin

basal body

stack of rings firmly anchored through the cell wall to the cell membrane that anchors the hook

monotrichous

with a single flagellum

lophotrichous

with small bunches or tufts of flagella emerging from the same site

amphitrichous

with flagella at both poles of the cell

peritrichous

flagella are dispersed randomly over the surface of the cell

chemotaxis

movement of a cell in the direction of or away from a chemical stimulus

spirochetes

corkscrew-shaped bacteria with a worm-like or serpentine mode of locomotion cased by flagella or axial filaments

fimbria or pilus

bacterial surface appendages that are involved in interactions with other cells, but do not provide locomotion

conjugation

use of pilus to transfer DNA from one cell to another

biofilms

complex mass of microbes clinging together

glycocalyx

coating of macromolecules to protect the cell and help it adhere to its environment

slime layer

loose shield covering some bacteria to protect them from dehydration and loss of nutrients

capsules

covering of repeating polysaccharide units, protein, or both; bound more tightly to the cell than a slime layer is; has thicker gummy consistency

peptidoglycan

macromolecule composed of repeating framework of long glycan chains cross-linked by short petide fragments

gram-positive

thick cell wall, composed primarily of peptidoglycan, and the cell membrane

gram-negative

an outer membrane, a thin peptidoglycan layer, and the cell membrane

teichoic acid

polymer of ribitol or glycerol and phosphate embedded in the peptidoglycan sheath of the cell wall

periplasmic space

space between cell membrane and cell wall

lipopolysaccharides

lipid molecules bound to polysaccharides in the outer membrane of gram negative

mycoplasmas

bacteria that lack a cell wall

bacterial chromosome

single circular strand of DNA

plasmids

nonessential pieces of DNA

inclusion bodies

way of storing nutrients during periods of nutrient abundance

bacterial endospore

dormant bodies produced by bacteria

sporulation

formation of an endospore when exposed to certain environmental signals

coccus

spherical or ball-shaped bacterium

bacillus

cylindrical shaped bacterium

coccobacillus

short and plump rod shaped bacterium

vibrio

gently curved bacterium

spirillum

spiral shaped cylinder bacterium

spirochete

spiral shaped bacterium with periplasmic flagella

diplococci

in pairs

tetrads

groups of four

staphylococci

irregular clusters

streptococci

chains of few to hundreds of cells

sarcina

complex grouping in a cubical packet of 8, 16, or more

diplobacilli

pair of cells with their ends attached

streptobacilli

chain of several cells

thylakoids

extensive internal membranes containing chlorophyll in cyanobacteria

obligate intracellular parasites

rickettsias and chlamydias have adapted to life inside their host cells

rickettsias

distinctive, very tiny, gram negative bacteria; cannot survive or multiply outside a host cell

chlamydias

require host cells for growth and metabolism

extremophiles

love extreme conditions in the environment

methanogens

can convert carbon dioxide and hydrogen into methane gas through unusual and complex pathways