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29 Cards in this Set

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social reaction + gifted

children may be criticized, socially isolated, or pressured by their parents, other children, or school personnel to be like norm

parallels between disabilities & gifted

defining & identifying children w/ special gifts involve the same difficulties as defining & identifying children w/ disabilities

disagreements in definition + gifted

1) in what ways do student w/ special gift or talent excel?

2) how is giftedness measured?

3) to what degree must a student excel to be considered to have a special gift or talent?

4) who should be in the comparison group?

5) why should students w/ special gifts be identified?


remarkable early development.

*children develop gifts in such areas as language, music or math at a very young age


separating relevant from irrelevant info, finding novel & useful ways of combining relevant bits of info, or relating new & old info in a novel & productive way


sometimes been used to indicate a particular aptitude or capacity in any area.

*more often, it has been used to indicate extremely rare intellectual powers or creativity


the ability to express novel & useful ideas, to sense & elucidate novel & important relationships, & to ask previously unthought of, but crucial, questions


ordinarily has been used to indicate a special ability, aptitude or accomplishment


cognitive superiority, creativity, & motivation in combination & of sufficient magnitude to set children apart from the vast majority of their age peers

most stated mandate gifted programs & their common elements are:

1) general intellectual ability

2) specific academic aptitude

3) creative thinking ability

4) advanced ability in the fine arts & performing arts

5) leadership ability

3 main types of giftedness (sternberg)

1) analytic: involved being able to take a problem apart - a skill typically measured by conventional intelligence tests

2) synthetic: involved insight, intuition, creativity, or adeptness at coping w/ novel situations, skills associated w/ high achievement in art/sciences

3) practical: involved applying analytic & synthetic abilities to the solution of everyday problems, characterize people w/ successful careers

most experts define giftedness as

superior abilities in specific areas of performance, which may be exhibited under some circumstances but not others

main factors that contribute to giftedness

1) genetic & other biological factors, such as neurological functioning & nutrition

2) social factors, such as family, school, peer group & community

characteristics of families of highly successful persons:

1) someone has personal interest in childs talent & provided support & encouragement

2) parents were role models

3) specific paternal encouragement of child to explore

4) parents took for granted their children would learn in area of talent

5) family exhibited expected behaviors & values

6) teaching was informal & occurred in variety of settings

7) family interacted w/ tutor/mentor

8) parents observed practice & insisted on level of practice

9) parents sought special instruction

10) parents encouraged participation in events

identification of giftedness

IQ, standardized achievement test scores, teacher nominations, parent nominations, peer nominations, self-nominations, & evaluations of student work or performance

8 general identification principles + giftedness

1) assessments exceed a narrow conception of talent

2) separate & appro identification strategies

3) reliable & valid instruments & strategies

4) appro instruments employed for underserved populations

5) each child is viewed as indiv

6) multiple-measure/criteria approach followed

7) appreciation is shown for value of indiv case student & limitations of scores

8) identification & placement based on indiv needs & abilities

attributes of gifted students

self-aware, self-assured, socially skilled & morally responsible

neglected groups of student w/ special gifts

1) children from higher socioeconomic levels already have many advantages

2) too many indiv w/ gifts are disadvantaged by circumstances or disabilities & have been overlooked & discriminated against

underachievement + gifted

frequent cause is inappropriate school programs - schoolwork that is unchallenging & boring b/c student has already mastered material or b/b teachers have low expectations or mark students down for misbehavior

cultural & ethnic minority groups + gifted

challenge is identifying culturally diverse & disadvantaged student w/ special abilities & incl & retaining these students in special programs

how to increase diversity in gifted programs

1) devise & adopt culturally sensitive identification criteria

2) provide counseling to raise edu & career aspirations

3) make high-achieving models from all ethnic groups available

4) retain underrepresented ethnic students in programs

5) adopt a workable system to ensure inclusion

6) build relationships w/ minority families

twice exceptional

student w/ both a disability & gift

*major goals: identifying, performing research & development, preparing teachers & other professional to work w/ children, improving interdisciplinary cooperation, & preparing student for adult living

females + gifted

females have not had equal opportunity & motivation to enter disciplines/careers that have been dominated by males (chemistry, physics, medicine, dentistry)

*contributing factors: lower parental expectations, overemphasis & glamorization of gender differences, school/societal stereotypes of gender roles, & edu practices that are detrimental to achievement

educational considerations + gifted


1) a curriculum designed to accommodate the students advanced cognitive skills

2) instructional strategies consistent w/ the learning of students w/ extraordinary abilities

3) admin arrangement facilitating appro grouping of students for instruction

enrichment & acceleration

enr: addf'l experiences provided to students w/o placing them in a higher grade

acc: placing students ahead of their age peers

educational programs + gifted

consulting teacher programs, resource rooms, community mentor programs, independent study programs, special classes & rapid advancement of students through grades - incl early admission to high school or college

early intervention + gifted

early admission to school & acceleration through grades & subjects offers significant advantages for some students

*many children w/ special abilities need is the freedom to make full & appro use of school systems

transition to adulthood + gifted

mirror problems in transitions face by indiv w/ disabilities

*proponents of enrichment - students need continued & social contact w/ same age peers

proponents of acceleration - the only way to provide challenging/appro edu is to let them compete w/ older students

early college admission

entrance is college on full or part time basis works very well for adolescents, as long as it is done w/ care & sensitivity to the needs of indiv