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41 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following statements concerning pathology, infection, and disease is true?
A) Microorganisms that make up the normal microbiota of an individual never cause disease.
B) The majority of microorganisms are pathogenic.
C) The term infection is synonymous with the term disease.
D) Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease.
D) Pathology refers to the study of structural and functional changes that occur in the body as a result of a disease.
Which of the following is an example of the symbiotic relationship known as mutualism?
A) a tapeworm in the gastrointestinal tract of a human
B) saprophytic Mycobacterium of the ear
C) E. coli within the large intestine
D) Corynebacterium on the surface of the eye
C) E. coli within the large intestine
Koch's postulates established criteria for proving that a specific organism causes a specific disease. Which of the following is NOT one of the criteria given by Koch's postulates?
A) The pathogen isolated from a pure culture must cause the disease in a healthy lab animal.
B) The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease.
C) The pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animals and must be different from the original organism.
D) The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.
C) The pathogen must be isolated from inoculated animals and must be different from the original organism.
Which of the following would be an example of disease transmission via INDIRECT contact?
A) A restaurant worker has diarrhea caused by Norovirus. He fails to wash his hands adequately before preparing the salad, and his customers get sick.
B) A student sneezes on her test booklet. The instructor grades it and catches her cold.
C) Mr. Smith sneezes on an airplane, and the person sitting beside him catches his cold.
D) A tick that is infected with Lyme disease bites a hiker, and the hiker gets Lyme disease.
B) A student sneezes on her test booklet. The instructor grades it and catches her cold.
Epidemiology is defined as the study of
A) where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.
B) where a disease occurs.
C) when a disease occurs.
D) how a disease is transmitted.
A) where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmitted.
What is the role of epidemiology?
A) To learn which medicines are effective at killing pathogens.
B) To learn what diseases can be caused by respiratory pathogens.
C) To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases.
D) To learn which organisms cause disease.
C) To learn how to treat and prevent various diseases.
Which of the following would be considered a fomite?
A) A fly
B) A tick
C) Contaminated water
D) An infected toy
D) An infected toy
Which of the following would be considered a vector?
A) Saliva that is transmitted between individuals during kissing
B) Water containing bacteria from fecal matter
C)A fly carrying disease from fecal matter to food
D) Water droplets that come from a sneeze from an infected individual
C) A fly carrying disease from fecal matter to food
When aerosols containing pathogens spread disease from a distance of less than one meter, it is considered
A) waterborne transmission.
B) airborne transmission.
C) vector transmission.
D) contact transmission.
B) airborne transmission.
Which is an example of vehicle disease transmission?
A) The bite of a mosquito containing malaria
B) Touching a telephone with cold viruses on its surface
C) The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner
D) The transmission of MRSA from skin to skin contact
C) The presence of Listeria on undercooked chicken served for dinner
The following choices list several types of diseases, along with factors that may contribute to their emergence. Which disease and associated factor do NOT match?
A) emergence of avian influenza A (H5N1): use of antibiotics
B) Increased incidence of Lyme disease: increases in deer populations
C) increased incidence of malaria: global warming
D) spread of cholera to new regions: modern travel
A) emergence of avian influenza A (H5N1): use of antibiotics
As a health care worker, I am keenly aware of how important it is to avoid harming my patients. I worry about inadvertently transmitting an infectious disease to an already compromised individual. According to the CDC, what is the MOST important thing I can do to avoid this?
Wash my hands before interacting with any patient.
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by infection with a protozoan. In certain tropical regions, malaria is constantly present. We would say that malaria is a(n) _________ disease in these regions.
endemic
The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of ______.
the normal microbiota
Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?
A) bacteria producing vitamin K
B) bacteria causing disease
C) bacteria occupying host receptors
D) bacteriocin production
E) acid production by bacteria
B) bacteria causing disease
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota
A) are present for a relatively short time.
B) are found in a certain location on the host.
C) are always acquired by direct contact.
D) cause diseases.
E) never cause disease.
A) are present for a relatively short time.
A commensal bacterium
may also be an opportunistic pathogen.
The graph in the figure shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates a(n)
epidemic level.
A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as
latent.
the figure shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
D
Which of the following is NOT a communicable diseases?
tetanus
The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can directly attributed to
vaccinations
In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?
A) tetanus
B) pneumonia
C) urinary tract infections
D) salmonellosis
E) anthrax
urinary tract infections
Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?
rabies
A) tapeworm
B) cat-scratch disease
C) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
D) None of the answers is correct; all of these are zoonoses.
D) None of the answers is correct; all of these are zoonoses.
A needlestick is an example of
fomite.
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of which form of disease transmission?
indirect contact transmission
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?
A) The pathogen reproduces in the vector.
B) The pathogen may be injected by the bite of the vector.
C) The pathogen may require the vector as a host.
D) The pathogen may enter the host in the vector's feces.
E) Houseflies are an important vector.
Houseflies are an important vector.
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) syphilis – direct contact
B) influenza – droplet infection
C) malaria – vector
D) salmonellosis – vehicle transmission
E) None of the pairs is mismatched.
E) None of the pairs is mismatched.
Which of the following is a fomite?
A hypodermic needle
Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?
a hospital
A) a sick person
B) a sick animal
C) a healthy person
D) None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.
D) None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.
Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission
involves specific diseases.
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?
A) the common cold
B) measles
C) diphtheria
D) botulism
E) tuberculosis
D) botulism
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
nosocomial infection
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?
normal microbiota on the operating room staff
A) antibiotic resistance
B) using syringes more than once
C) errors in aseptic technique
D) All of the answers are correct.
D) All of the answers are correct
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?

A) They may be caused by opportunists.
B) They occur in compromised patients.
C) They may be caused by normal microbiota.
D) The patient was infected before hospitalization.
E) They may be caused by drug-resistant bacteria
D) The patient was infected before hospitalization.
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
A) gram-negative cell walls
B) antibiotic resistance
C) lack of handwashing
D) lack of insect control
E) lapse in aseptic techniques
A) gram-negative cell walls
A nosocomial infection is
acquired during the course of hospitalization.
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A) S. aureus is differentiated from other mannitol+ cocci by the coagulase test.
B) The USA100 strain accounts for most hospital-acquired MRSA.
C) Antimicrobial therapy for hemodialysis-associated infections increases antibiotic resistance.
D) The USA300 strain accounts for most community-acquired MRSA.
E) The M in MRSA stands for mannitol.
E) The M in MRSA stands for mannitol.
Which of the following does NOT contribute to the emergence of infectious diseases?
A) Antibiotic resistance
B) Climatic changes
C) New strains of previously known agents
D) Ease of travel
E) The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these
E) The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these
The CDC is located in
Atlanta, GA
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
epidemiology