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62 Cards in this Set

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General Adaptation Syndrome

A term used to describe how the body responds and adapts to stress

1. Alarm reaction

2. Resistance development

3. Exhaustion

What are the three phases of General Adaptation Syndrome

Alarm Reaction

Initial reaction to stressor such as increased oxygen and blood supply to the necessary areas of the body

Resistance development

Increased functional capacity to adapt to stressor such as increasing motor unit recruitment


a prolonged intolerable stressor produces fatigue and leads to a breakdown in the system and injury

Delayed on-set muscle soreness

Pain or discomfort felt 24-72 hours after intense exercise or unaccustomed physical activity

Adaptive benefits of resistance training, Physiologic

1. Improved cardio efficiency

2. Beneficial endocrine (harmone) and serum lipid (cholesterol) adaptation

3. Increased bone density

4. Increased metabolic efficiency (metabolism)

Adaptive benefits of resistance training, Physical

1. Increased tissue (muscle, tendons, ligaments) tensile strength

2. Increased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers

3. Decreased body fat

Adaptive benefits of resistance training, Performance

1. Increased neuromuscular control (coordination)

2. Increased endurance

3. Increased strength

4. Increased power


Division of a training program into smaller, progressive stages

Specific Adaption of Imposed Demands

What does SAID stand for?

Principle of Specificity: The SAID Principle

States that the body will adapt to the specific demands that are placed on it.

Mechanical specificity

Refers to the weight and movements placed on the body

Neuromuscular Specificity

Refers to the speed of contraction and exercise selection

Metabolic specificity

Refers to the energy demand placed on the body

Resistance Training Systems: Single Set

1. Performing one set of each exercise

2. Beneficial for beginner clients

3. Recommended at two times/week

4. Can help avoid synergistic dominance and injury

Resistance Training Systems: Multiple Set

1. Performing a multiple number of sets for each exercise

2. Load, sets, reps selected according to client fitness level and goals

3. More appropriate than single set for advanced clients

Resistance Training Systems: Pyramid

1. Increasing (or decreasing) weight with each set

2. Light load at 10-12 reps, increases weight until only 1-2 reps can be performed (usually in 4-6 sets)

3. Can also work opposite (heavy to light)

Resistance Training Systems: Superset

1. Performing two exercises in rapid succession with minimal rest

2. Variation 1: Two exercises for same muscle group back to back (can also be a tri-set or giant set)

3. Can also be two back to back for antagonist muscle groups

4. Typically 8-12 reps

5. Beneficial for muscular endurance or hypertrophy

Resistance Training Systems: Drop Set

1. Performing a set to failure, then removing small percentage (5-20%) of load and continuing with set

2. Usually followed by 2-4 additional sets

3. Popular among body builders or advanced resistance trainers

Resistance Training Systems: Circuit Training

1. Performing a series of exercises, one after the other, with minimal rest

2. Typically low to moderate sets (1-3)

3. Moderate to high reps (8-20)

4. Great for altering body composition and/or clients with limited time

Resistance Training Systems: Peripheral heart action

1. Variation of circuit training that uses different exercises (upper/lower body) for each set through the circuit

2. Potential to improve circulation to distribute blood flow to upper and lower

3. Great for incorporating and integrated, multidimensional program to alter body composition

Resistance Training Systems: Split routine

1. A routine that trains different body parts on different days

Resistance Training Systems: Vertical Loading

1. Performing exercises on the OPT template one after the other in a vertical manner down the template

2. Alternating body parts trained from set to set, starting at upper to lower extremities

3. Allows for recovery of body part without waisting time on rest

Resistance Training Systems: Horizontal Loading

1. Performing all sets of an exercise (or body part) before moving on to the next exercise (or body part)

2. Appropriate for max strength or power since rest periods are longer

3. Sometimes rest can be longer than work out

4. Can be sued to as a metabolic progression if rest periods are monitored (30-90 sec -- can lead to faster metabolic/hypertrophy development)

Total Body Stabilization Exercise: Ball Squat Curl to Press, Technique

With any from of a ball squat, use ball to guide client through squatting motion (sitting in chair) versus relying on ball for support (leaning back)

Regression: Decrease range of motion


1. Alternating Arm

2. One-Arm

3. Single Leg

Total Body Stabilization exercise: Multiplanar Step up Balance, curl to overhead press, Technique

When pressing, be sure lower back does not arch. This indicates tightness of the lats and weakness of intrinsic core stabilizers


1. Move in frontal plane

2. Move in transverse plane

Total Body Strength Exercise: Lunge to Two Arm Dumbbell Press, Technique

With any squat or lunge motion, make sure foot stays straight and knees in line with toes to ensure proper joint mechanics (arthrokinematics) and optimal force generation (proper length-tension relationships and force couple relationships) increasing benefits and decreasing risk

Progression: Move in frontal plane or transverse plane

Total Body strength exercise: Squat, curl, to two arm press, Technique

Knees in line with toes. No compensation in lower back. No foot pronation.

Total Body Power Exercise: Two Arm Push Press, Safety

1. Est. proper stability and prime mover strength before pressing to power. Explosive movement from shoulder height to overhead with load in the legs

Total Body Power Exercise: Barbell Clean, Safety

1. Requires advanced training and proper instruction. Is an explosive movement with bar from floor to collar bone.

Chest stabilization exercise: Ball Dumbell Chest Press, safety

To ensure proper alignment, ears, shoulders, hips and knees should all be in one line

Regression: Dumbbell chest press progression on bench


1. Alternating Arm

2. Single arm

Chest stabilization exercise: Push Up, Safety

common compensation is that low back arches (stomach falls towards ground). Indicates that the individual has weak intrinsic core stabilizers and the exercise should be regressed

Regression:1. On knees 2. Hands on bench 3. hands on wall

Progression: 1. Lower extremities on ball 2. Hands on med. ball 3. Hands on stability ball

Chest strength exercise: Flat dumbell chest press, AND barbell bench press, technique

Range of motion at shoulder joint (how far elbow goes down) will be determined by load one is lifting (control) and tissue extensibility. Only go as far as one can control without compensation

Chest Power exercise: Two arm medicine ball chest pass, technique

If medicine balls are not available, it can be done using tubing or cable. Be sure to adjust weight or resistance accordingly so one can still perform the movement quickly and under control without compensation

Chest power exercise: Rotation Chest Pass, technique

As body turns, bag leg pivots to allow it into triple extension (plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension).

Back arm applies force

Back stabilization exercise: Standing Cable Row, Technique

When performing rows, initiate the movement by retracting and depressing the shoulder blades (scapulae). Shoulders should not elevate

Regression: Seated


1. Two leg - alternating arm

2. Two leg - one arm

3. single leg - two arms

4. single leg - alternating arm

5. single leg - one arm

Back stabilization exercises: Ball dumbbell row, technique

exercise in a prone positon can be uncomfortable. when working with overweight individuals, it may be more appropriate to perform in a seated or standing position

Regression: Kneeling over ball


1. Alternating Arm

2. One arm

Back Strength Exercises: Seated cable row, Technique

To increase the effectiveness and decrease injury risk, keep torso stationary throughout execution. Flexing and extending the torso creates momentum which decreases effectiveness and places strain on lower back

Back strength exercise: Seated Lat Pulldown, safety

Performing with bar behind the neck is not advised as this places stress to the s shoulder joints and cervical spine

Back Power exercise: Medicine ball pullover throw, safety

To decrease stress to the shoulder and low back, it will be important that one has optimal extensibility through the lats before performing these exercises

Back power exercise: Soccer Throw, Safety

To decrease stress to the shoulder and low back, it will be important that one has optimal extensibility through the lats before performing these exercises

Shoulder stability exercise: single leg dumbbell caption, technique

Performing shoulder exercises in the scapular plane decreases the risk of the supraspinatus muscle becoming impinged between the head of the humerus and the coracoacromial arch of the scapula

Regression: 1. Two legs 2. Seated

Progression: 1. single leg alternating arm 2. single leg single arm 3. Proprioceptive modalities

Shoulder stability exercise: Seated stability ball military press, safety

Exercises on a stability ball can be uncomfortable for some people. it may be required to hold ball while individual performs the exercise to provide some support (mentally/physically)

Regression: Seated on bench


1. Alternating-arm

2. One arm

3. Standing

Shoulder strength exercise: seated dumbell shoulder press, safety

Make sure cervical spine stays neutral (head drawn back). Do not allow the head to migrate forward as this places excessive stress on the posterior neck muscles and cervical spine

Shoulder strength exercise: seated shoulder press machine, safety

Make sure cervical spine stays neutral (head drawn back). Do not allow the head to migrate forward as this places excessive stress on the posterior neck muscles and cervical spine

Shoulder power exercises: Front medicine ball oblique throw: technique

If a partner is unavailable you can perform the exercise by tossing the medicine ball against a wall

Can be performed to alternating sides or one side

Shoulder power exercise: overhead medicine ball throw, technique

Release ball before arms pass ears. Do not allow back to hyper extend. Land controlled with no compensations

Bicep stabilization exercise: single leg dumbbell curl, technique

keep scapula retracted during exercise to ensure proper scapular stability. This places more emphasis on the bicep musculature

Regression: Two leg


1. Alternating Arm

2. Single Arm

3. Proprioceptive modalities

Bicep stabilization exercise: single leg barbell curl, safety

to decrease stress on the elbow, don't grip to close or too wide. to determine grip width, extend elbows so you hands fall naturally to your sides-palms forward

Regression: two leg

Progression: Proprioceptive modalities

bicep strength exercise: seated two arm dumbbell bicep curl, technique

Shoulders should stay retracted to maximize bicep recruitment

bicep strength exercise: bicep curl machine, technique

It's important to keep an upright posture when curling. do not allow torso to excessively flex or extend to cheat the movement

Tricep stabilization exercise: supine ball dumbbell tricep extenson, safety

When on ball in supine position, make sure position is such that head, comfortably rest on ball. this will decrease stress to the cervical spine

Regression: On bench


1. Alternating Arms

2. One-arm

Tricep stabilization exercise: Prone ball tricep extension, technique

To ensure optimal alignment, make sure ankles, knees, hips, elbows, shoulders and ears are all in alignment and maintained throughout the exercise

regression: standing with cable


1. alternating arm

2. single arm

Triceps strength exercise: Cable pushdown, technique

Using a rope will allow the elbows to track through natural path of motion versus having the hands closely fixed on a bar. May help decrease risk of compensation.

Triceps strength exercise: supine bench barbell tricep extension, safety

as with barbell curls, keeping hands too close on the bar can increase stress on the elbow. Having your hands closer to shoulders-width apart can help to decrease stress to the elbow and compensation

Leg stability exercise: Ball squat, safety

Are a great way to teach individuals how to squat properly, with the goal to have them eventually progress to squats without the stability ball


1. Decrease range of motion

2. hold on to something stable

Progression: remove stability ball

Leg stability exercise: Multiplanar step-up to balance, technique

lunges are excellent lower-extremity strengthening exercise, however many individuals lack the flexibility and stability required to execute the exercise. these are a great way to regress the lunge until one develops proper flexibility and stabilization.

Regression: Omit balance, Decrease step height

Progression: Frontal Plane or Transverse plane

Leg strength exercise: Leg Press (hip sled), technique

Feet are positioned on the platform hips to shoulder width apart toes pointed straight ahead with knees tracking in line with toes. this will decrease stress to the knees hips and low back

Leg strength exercise: Barbell squat, safety

Clients should squat as far as can be controlled without compensating. as flexibility and stabilization develops, the range of motion can be increased, assuming no compensation occurs.

Leg Power exercise: squat jump, technique

Always land softly with feet and knees pointing straight ahead

Leg power exercise: tuck jump, technique

make sure you land behind the ball of the foot (not on ball or on heel). This will ensure proper force distribution through the foot and lower extremity, improving force production capabilities.