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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
crossing over
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of genes
region of the chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
binary fission
type of asexual reproduction in which an organism replicates its DNA and divides in half producing two identical daughter cells
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
fertilized egg
term used to refer to chromosomes in which one set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent
G1 *
The first stage of the cell cycle- a cell grows and carries out normal functions
period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
term used to refer to a cell that contains two sets of homologous chromosomes
cell plate *
the partition separating two newly separated plant cells; eventually this will form the cell membranes
fibers that originate from centrioles that attach to chromosomes and move them into place during mitosis
error in meiosis in which the homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly
cell cycle
series of events in which a cell grows and prepares for division
S *
the stage of the cell cycle in which the genetic material duplicates (DNA replication happens)
first and longest phase of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
sex cell
phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
chromatid see also sister chromatids
one of two identical “sister” parts of a duplicated chromosome
germ cell *
a cell found in either the testes or ovaries that undergoes cell division to produce gametes (sex cells such as sperm or egg cells)
G2 *
the stage just before mitosis in which the cell makes final preparations to divide; organelles duplicate and the spindle apparatus forms
sister chromatids *
two identical copies of a chromosome connected by a centromere
formation of sperm
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; also called autosomal chromosome
sex chromosome
one of two chromosomes that determines an individual’s sex
cleavage furrow *
In animal cells and some algal cells the pinching in that occurs at the end of telophase as a result of the action of microfilaments.
polar body *
a small cell that does not develop into an ova; a “container” to get rid of excess chromosomes not needed by the egg cell during oogenesis
oogenesis *
formation of 1 egg cell plus 3 polar bodies
somatic cell *
normal body cell; undergoes mitosis & does not produce gametes