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51 Cards in this Set

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Harlow (1848)
Phineas Gage, damaged frontal lobe, localization of behavior. Resulted in loss of emotional control and intellectual abilities.
Money (1974)
David Reimer, theory of gender neutrality, roles are learned and not innate.
Martinez and Kesner (1991)
Effects of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) on memory formation of rats trained to run a maze for food. One group as a control, one injected with scopolamine (blocks acetylcholine receptors), ran slower. Another group injected with physostigmine (blocks acetylcholine resting state), ran faster with fewer mistakes.
Rosenzweig and Bennett (1971)
Brain plasticity in rats, effects of deprivation. Rats placed in a stimulating environment had thicker cerebral cortexes (responsible for sensory input, memory, and learning).
Bouchard et al. (1990)
Minnesota Twin Study, longitudinal study of MZ twins reared together and apart, found equal chance of the pairs sharing personalities and interests. Differences must be due to the environment.
Bouchard and McGue (1981)
Reviewed 111 studies of IQ correlations between siblings, the closer the kinship, the closer the IQ.
Grove et al. (1990)
Twin study, MZ twins raised apart, anti-social behavior measured, it is found to be a hereditary trait.
Schachter and Singer (1962)
Two factor theory of emotion, three groups given epinephrine (hormone) injection, one given placebo. Some told about injection's effects, some not, and all are placed with a confederate who was either happy or angry. Participants not informed about effects were more likely to feel either happier or angrier than the informed.
Broca (1861)
Discovered that the left frontal lobe is responsible for making grammatically complex sentences. People with Broca’s aphasia are trapped in their bodies since they understand speech but cannot express themselves, patient can only say ‘Tan.’
Wernicke (1874)
Left posterior superior temporal gyrus is responsible for language comprehension. People with this type of brain damage can speak but not understand language, Wernicke’s aphasia.
Kasamatsu and Hirai (1999)
Accompanied monks on their pilgrimage to mountains, took blood samples before the trip. During the 72 hours of sensory deprivation (no eating, talking, drinking), they reported hallucinations. The blood samples after the trip showed increased serotonin (hormone controls sleep, mood, emotion, appetite).
Ditzen (2009)
Couples randomly assigned to two groups: one is administered oxytocin and the other has placebo. They are then asked to discuss a subject they often disagree about, oxytocin reduced stress hormones and increased positive communication behavior.
Iacoboni (2004)
Looking at human faces while having fMRI, first asked to imitate faces and then simply to watch. Limbic system stimulated, happy faces activate pleasure centres.
Sacks (2007)
Article on Clive Wearing: most extensive case of amnesia recorded, he only has a memory span of a few seconds and cannot record new memories, each moment is like the first waking one. He retains emotional memory and implicit memory (piano skills), but his hippocampus and frontal lobe are damaged.
Milner and Scoville (1957)
HM: epileptic whose hippocampus was removed at the age of 9 (only treatment at the time), he cannot form new memories but can hold a normal conversation. He does not remember magazines he just read, MRI reveals damage to the hippocampus, amygdala, and other areas close to these.
Davidson (2004)
Buddhist monks experienced in meditation and volunteers with one week of training, told to meditate on love and compassion. PET scan found that both had increased gamma waves (associated with higher reasoning), but monks’ did not go down after like the volunteers’.
Brunner et al. (1993)
Genetic mutation in 28 members of Dutch family with anti social behavior. Found mutation for MAOA, a neurochemical in the brain. Deficiency of this is associated with aggression, this was not found in the control group of normal males.
Scarr and Weinberg (1974)
No large difference between parent-child IQ correlations of natural and adopted children. Children were poorer with lower IQ parents that were adopted by wealthy white parents with high IQs. Intelligence must be influenced by environment.
Fessler (2006)
Investigated morning sickness in pregnant women, asked them to consider disgusting scenarios, women in first trimester more sensitive to disgust, self preservation and pickiness for food improve chances of survival.
Curtis et al. (2004)
Internet study, ranking 20 images by how disgusting they are, some are harmful to the immune system while some are just visually similar but harmless. Disgust reaction decreased with age, higher in women than men.
Atkinson and Shriffin (1968)
Multi-store model of memory, simple theory. Sensory memory to short term memory to long term memory.
Stroop (1935)
Stroop effect, people take more time to identify colors of a word in a different color than when it is the same color. Attentional processes.
Bartlett (1932)
Using serial reproduction (broken telephone), people were asked to read through a Native American story twice and then retell it later. It became distorted as people tried to fit it into their schemas.
Loftus and Palmer (1974)
Asked participants to see video of a car crash, changed one word in the leading question to see its effect on the responses of participants regarding the cars’ speeds. Also asked if they saw any broken glass, this increased the speed.
Curtiss (1981)
'Genie,' case study of girl deprived of language until age 13
Anderson and Pichert (1978)
Participants hear story of a house from different perspectives (burglar or house-buyer), then distracted. Half are given a different schema, then have their recall tested. Changed schema people recalled more, but experiment had low ecological validity (controlled lab conditions).
Baddeley (1966)
Participants given lists of words with similar sounds, similar meaning, or lists of dissimilar words. Over the short term, there were many errors with acoustically similar words, but in the long-term, mistakes were made for semantically similar words. Concluded that STM uses acoustic processing, and LTM uses semantic processing. Limited in that visual processing is not accounted for.
Baddeley and Hitch (1974)
Asked participants to read prose while remembering sequences of numbers, multitasking caused impairment but was not devastating to completing both tasks, supports that STM has more than one store (working memory model), working memory model.
Brown and Kulik (1977)
Flashbulb memories, asked participants about events like the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. People had very clear memories of the place, ongoing event, informant, and feelings surrounding the event. The relevance or emotional significance of an event to a person's life increased its likelihood of being stored as a 'flashbulb memory'. 75% of black people asked were able to recall the assassination of Martin Luther King, while just 33% of white people could.
Lazarus (1990)
Emotional appraisal theory, an emotion-provoking stimulus triggers a cognitive appraisal, which is followed by the emotion and the physiological arousal. He suggested we initially make a brief analysis of a situation which he called a cognitive appraisal. This appraisal determines the level of physiological arousal and the specific type of emotion to be experienced.
Speisman et al. (1964)
Support for Lazarus' emotional appraisal theory, manipulating emotional reactions, unpleasant genital surgery with trauma, control (silent), and positive narration. Participants in the trauma group reported more stress.
Asch (1951)
Participants enter room with 6 men in suits (confederates playing a role for the experiment), asked to match line lengths on cards. Confederates answered incorrectly for most trials, even though it was clear they were wrong. Most participants conformed to this, although some did not conform to any of the responses. In the debriefing, participants reported self-doubt. The experiment has been replicated many times, and that larger groups of confederates up to a certain point increased conformity. When all the confederates agreed, conformity increased. Confidence and self esteem were also factors.
Zimbardo et al. (1995)
Stanford prison experiment, people have collective and social identities which will determine their behavior, conceptions of a prisoner and a guard will affect the way people behave towards them. investigated the effects of putting ‘normal’ people in difficult situations. Volunteers were randomly assigned to either prisoner or guard in a prison simulation, and within 6 days the experiment had to be suspended as a result of guard brutality and prisoner rebellion. Zimbardo concluded it was the situation the guards were in (empowerment) rather than any negative personality traits that explained their brutal behavior.
Milgram (1963)
Electrical shock experiment on authority and obedience. Ordinary people fulfilled orders to administer what appeared to be fatal electric shocks to a confederate of the experimenter. Milgram argued it was situational cues (such as the prestigious setting, and authority of the experimenter) that compelled participants to administer dangerous shocks.
Lee et al. (1977)
Game show fundamental attribution error, the participants mistakenly attributed intelligence to dispositional factors, even though it should have been situational. People randomly assigned roles as contestants, game show host, or audience. Host designs question, audience watches contestants answer them. People then asked to rank the intelligence of participants, host consistently ranked higher. However, all participants were students (conditioned to obey authorities)
Lau and Russel (1980)
American professional athletes and coaches attribute 80% of their wins to internal factors (e.g. ability, skill, professionalism). Losses are far more likely to be attributed to external factors (e.g. bad luck, unfair refereeing).
Cialdini et al. (1976)
Social identity theory, observed college football supporters on the days immediately following inter-college games. If their team won college scarves and insignia were much more in evidence around the college campus than if their team lost. The victory gave a sense of positive-distinctiveness for the group and therefore enhanced self esteem.
Tajifel (1970)
Schoolboys from Bristol were randomly allocated into groups (told it was because of a preference for the art of Kandinsky or Klee), boys tended to favor members of their own group and maximized similarities between themselves, but did not actually actively dislike the other group.
Aronson (1995)
African American and White college students who took a difficult verbal exam under one of two conditions: stereotype threat (told that their performance on the test would be a good indicator of their underlying intellectual abilities) and non-threat (the test was simply a problem solving exercise and was not diagnostic of ability). Performance was compared in the two conditions and results showed that African American participants performed worse stereotype threat condition, but in the non-threat condition their performance equaled the whites.
Spencer et al. (1977)
Difficult mathematics test given to women strong in maths, they underperformed compared to men. Stereotype threat about women’s poor ability in maths. When tested in literature skills, men and women were equal because the threat was not there.
Snyder and Swann (1978)
Told participants they were to meet an extroverted or introverted person, asked to come up with questions for them, questions confirmed participants’ opinion of each personality type.
Bandura (1963)
Bobo doll experiment, 72 children, equal numbers female and male between 3 and 6 are divided into 3 groups, first is exposed to adults being violent towards Bobo dolls, second watches adult assemble toys for 10 minutes, third has no model (control group). Some children watched same sex models, and some watched opposite sex models. Afterwards, the children are placed in the room with the Bobo doll. First group are also aggressive, second are not, girls more likely to be verbally aggressive and boys physical, children more likely to imitate the same sex model.
Gergely et al. (2002)
14 month old infants observed adults light up a box by bending over and pressing the box with her forehead, with hands on the table. The second group observed the same action, but with hands occupied holding a blanket. After a week, the infants were given the opportunity to play with the box, and many used their head to imitate the model, second group used their hands. Even very young infants can imitate a model’s behavior and infer their intentions, supporting social learning theory.
Dickerson et al. (2002)
Team wanted to see if university students could be convinced to take shorter showers. Researchers asked them to sign a poster supporting this, and most agreed. They were then asked to take a survey to make them think about their own water usage, and shower times were monitored, were shorter across the whole dormitory. Participants felt committed to the cause, supports foot in the door compliance technique.
Burger and Cornelius (2003)
Caller asked if students would donate $5 to a scholarship fund, first group told they would receive a free smoothie coupon, but were told they ran out and asked if they still wanted to donate. Second group told there were no more coupons before they had made a choice, third group asked to donate with no mention of coupons (control). Therefore supports low balling technique, but is based on making a public commitment so is only effective then.
Hogg and Vaughan (1995)
Asch experiment repeated, with confederates as a minority, they were able to influence participants’ responses to identifying a color. Minorities can influence the group because their dissenting opinions produce uncertainty and show that other options exist. Second study lends weight to Asch’s theory, different situation also evaluated, greater chance for generalization.
Harlow (1956)
Attachment in infant monkeys, cloth mother for comfort and as a source of security, and wire mother for food. Monkeys spend most time with cloth mother when not feeding. The isolated monkeys suffered serious emotional deprivation (privation) resulting in delinquent and anti-social behaviour, as infant monkeys had an innate need for comfort.
Cole and Scribner (1974)
Study of children from Kpelle tribe in Liberia (educated and uneducated) and American children in memorizing lists of items. Americans were best (where 'chunking' items is taught in school for memorization), then the educated Kpelle children.
Hofstede (1973)
Asked over 100,000 employees in 50 countries of the multinational company IBM to fill in surveys about morale in the workplace, carried out a content analysis and found that over half of the variance between countries was accounted for by five dimensions, including collectivism vs. individualism and short term vs. long term orientation
Bond and Smith (1996)
Meta-analysis of different conformity studies across the world, countries with more collectivist cultures were more likely to conform than individualist cultures
Chen (2005)
Investigated short term vs. long term orientation with 47 Singaporean ‘bicultural participants’ exposed to Singaporean and American culture. Selectively activated one or the other of the two cultures by presenting half with a collage of easily recognizable photos relevant to Singaporean culture and other half with US culture. Impatience tested by having participants perform an online shopping scenario in to purchase a novel. The book could be delivered either within four working days for a standard fee or next day for an additional charge. The extra money participants were willing to pay for faster delivery of the book was used as a measure of impatience. US-primed participants valued immediate consumption more than the Singaporean- primed participants.