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148 Cards in this Set

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cardiology
The branch of medicine involving diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Physician is a cardiologist.
cardiovascular technician
Healthcare professional trained to perform a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including electrocardiography, echocardiography and exercise stress tests.
angiitis
Inflammation of a vessel
angiospasm
An involuntary muscle contraction of the smooth muscle in the wall of a vessel; narrows the vessel
angiostenosis
The narrowing of a vessel
bradycardia
The condition of having a slow heart rate; typically less than 60 beats/minute; highly trained aerobic persons may normally have a slow heart rate.
emolus
The obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot that has broken off from a thrombus somewhere else in the body and traveled to the point of obstruction. If it occurs in a coronary artery, it may result in a myocardial infarction
infarct
An area of the tissue within an organ or part that undergoes necrosis (death) following the loss of its blood supply.
ischemia
The localized and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to an obstruction to the circulation
murmur
A sound, in addition to the normal heart sounds, arising from blood flowing through the heart. This extra sound may or may not indicate a heart abnormality
orthostatic hypotension
The sudden drop in blood pressure a person experiences when standing straight up suddenly
palpitations
Pounding, racing heartbeats.
plaque
A yellow, fatty deposit of lipids in an artery that is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Also called atheroma.
regurgitation
To flow backwards. In the cardiovascular system this refers to the backflow of blood through a valve
tachycardia
The condition of having a fast heart rate; typically more than 100 beats/minute while at rest.
thrombus
A blood clot forming within a blood vessel. May partially or completely occlude the blood vessel.
angina pectoris
Condition in which there is severe pain with a sensation of constriction of around the heart. Caused by a deficiency of oxygen to the heart muscle.
arrhythmia
Irregularity in the heartbeat or action. Comes in many different forms; some are serious while other are life-threatening
bundle branch block (BBB)
Occurs when the electrical impulse is blocked from traveling down the bundle of His or bundle branches. Results in the ventricles beating at a different rate than the atria. Also called heart block.
cardiac arrest
Complete stopping of heart activity
cardiomegaly
An enlarged heart
cardiomyopathy
General term for disease of the myocardium. Can be caused by alcohol abuse, parasites, viral infection, and congestive heart failure. One of the most common reasons a patient may require a heart transplant.
congenital septal defect (CSD)
A hole, present at birth, in the septum between two heart chambers; results in a mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. There can be an artial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD)
congestive heart failure (CHF)
Pathological condition of the heart in which there is a reduced outflow of blood from the left side of the heart because the left ventricle myocardium has become too weak to effiecently pump blood. Results in weakness, breathlessness, and edema.
coronary artery disease (CAD)
Inusufficient blood supply to the heart muscle due to an obstruction of one or more of the coronary arteries. May be caused by atherosclerosis and may cause angina pectoris and myocardial infarction
endocarditis
Inflammation of the lining membranes of the heart. May be due to bacteria or to an abnormal immunological response. In bacterial endocarditis, the mass of bacteria that forms in referred to as vegetation
fibrillation
An extremely serious arrhythmia characterized by abnormal quivering or contraction of heart fibers. When this occurs in the ventricles, cardiac arrest and death can occur. Emergency equipment to defibrillate or convert the heart to a normal beat, is necessary
flutter
An arrhythmia in which the atria beat too rapidly, but in the regular pattern
heart valve prolapse
Condition in which the cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too loose and fail to shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backward through the calce when the heart chamber contracts. Most commonly occurs in the mitral valve, but may affect any of the heart valves
heart valve stenosis
The cusps or flaps of the heart valve are too stiff. Therefore, they are unable to open fully, making it difficult for blood to flow through, or shut tightly, allowing blood to flow backwards. This condition may affect any of the heart valves.
myocardial infarction
Condition caused by partial of complete occlusion of closing of one of more of the coronary arteries. Symptoms include a squeezing pain of heavy pressure in the middle of the chest (angina pectoris) A delay in treatment could result in death. Also referred to as a heart attack.
myocarditis
Inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart wall
pericarditis
Inflammation of the pericardial sac around the heart
tetralogy of Fallot
Combination of four congenital anomalies; pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular septal defect, improper placement of the aorta, and hypertrophy of the right ventricle. Need immediate surgery to correct.
valvulitis
The inflammation of the heart valve.
aneurysm
Weakness in the wall of an artery resulting in localized widening of the artery. Although an aneurysm may develop in any artery, common sites include the aorta in the abdomen and cerebral arteries in the brain.
arteriorrhexis
A ruptured artery; may occur if an aneurysm ruptures an arterial wall.
ateriscolerosis
Thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of the walls of the arteries. Most often due to artherosclerosis
atheroma
A deposit of fatty substance in the wall of an artery that bulges into and narrows the lumen of the artery; a characteristic of atherosclerosis. Also called plaque
atherosclerosis
The most common form of arteriosclerosis. Caused by the formation of yellowish plaques of cholesterol on the inner walls of arteries.
Coarctation of the aorta
Severe congenital narrowing of the aorta
hemorrhoid
Varicose veins in the anal region
hypertension
Blood pressure above the normal range.
hypotension
Decrease in blood pressure. Can occur in shock, infection, cancer, anemia, or as death approaches.
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Congenital heart anomaly in which the fetal connection between the pulmonary artery and the aorta fails to close at birth. This condition may be treated with medication and resolve with time. However, in some cases surgery is required.
peripheral vascular disease (PVD)
Any abnormal condition affecting blood vessels outside the heart. Symptoms may include pain, pallor, numbness, and loss of circulation and pulses
phelbitis
The inflammation of a vein
polyarteritis
Inflammation of several arteries
Raynaud's Phenomenon
Periodic ishcemic attacks affecting the extremities of the body, especially the fingers, toes, ears and nose. The affected extremities become cyanotic and very painful. These attacks are brought on by arterial constriction due to extreme cold or emotional stress.
thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein resulting in the formation of blood clots within the vein.
varicose veins
Swollen and distended veins, usually in the legs
auscultation
Process of listening to the sounds within the body by using a stethoscope
sphygmomanometer
Instrument for measuring blood pressure. Also referred to as a blood pressure cuff.
stethoscope
Instrument for listening to body sounds (auscultation), such as the chest, heart, or intestines
cardiac enzymes
Blood test to determine the level of enzymes specific to heart muscles in the blood. An increase in the enzymes may indicate heart muscle damage such as a myocardial infarction. These enzymes include creatine phosphokinase (CPK), lacate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT).
serum lipoprotein level
Blood test to measure the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. An indicator of atherosclerosis risk.
angiogram
X-ray record of a vessel taken during angiography.
angiography
X-rays taken after the injection of an opaque material into a blood vessel. Can be performed on the aorta as an aortic angiography, on the heart as angiocardiography, and on the brain as a cerebral angiography.
cardiac scan
Patient is given radioactive thallium intravenously and then scanning equipment is used to visualize the hear. It is especially useful in determining myocardial damage.
Doppler ultrasonography
Measurement of sound-wave echoes as they bounce off tissues and organs to produce an image.
echocardiography
Noninvasive diagnosis method using ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures. Cardiac valve activity can be evaluated using this method
catheter
Flexible tube inserted into the body for the purpose of moving fluids into or out of the body. In the cardiovascular system a catheter is used to place dye into blood vessels so they may be vizualized on x-rays.
cardiac catheterization
Passage of a thin tube catheter through a blood vessel leading to the heart.
electrocardiogram
Hard copy record produced by electrocariography
electrocardiography
process of recording the electrical activity of the heart.
Holter monitor
Portable ECG monitor worn by a patient for a period of a few hours to a few days to assess the heart and pulse activity as the person goes through the activities of daily living.
stress testing
method for evaluating cardiovascular fitness. The patient is placed on a treadmill or a bicycle and then subjected to steadily increasing levels of work. An EKG and oxygen levels are taken while the patient exercises.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Procedure to restore cardiac output and oxygenated air to the lungs for a person in cardiac arrest. A combination of chest compressions and artificial respiration performed by one or two CPR-trained rescurers
defibrillation
Procedure that converts serious irregular heartbeats, such as fibrillation, by giving electric shocks to the heart using as instrument called a defibrillator.
extracorporeal circulation
During open-heart surgery, the routing of blood to a heart-lung machine so it can be oxygenated and pumped to the rest of the body.
implantable cardioverterdefibrillator
Device implanted in the heart that delivers an electrical shock to restore a normal heart rhythm. Particularly useful for persons who experience ventricular fibrillation
pacemaker implantation
Electrical device that substitutes for the natural pacemaker of the heart. It controls the beating of the heart by a series of rhythmic electrical impulses. External pacemaker has the electrodes on the outside of the body. An internal pacemaker has the electrodes surgically implanted within the chest wall
thrombolytic therapy
Process in which drugs, such as streptokinase or tissue-type plasminogen activator are injected into a blood vessel to dissolve clots and restore blood flow
aneurysmectomy
Surgical removal of the sac of an aneurysm
arterial anastomosis
Surgical joining together to two arteries. Performed if an artery is served of if a damaged section of an artery is removed
atherectomy
Surgical procedure to remove a deposit of fatty substance, an atheroma, from an artery
coronary artery bypass graft
Open-heart surgery in which a blood vessel from another location in the body is grafted to route blood around a blocked coronary artery
embolectomy
Removal of an embolus or clot from a blood vessel
endarterectomy
Removal of the diseased or damaged inner lining of an artery. Usually performed to remove atherosclerotic plaques
heart transplantation
Replacement of diseased of malfunctioning heart with a donor's heart
intracoronary artery stent
Placement of a stent within a coronary artery to treat coronary ischemia due to atherosclerosis
ligation and stripping
Surgical treatment for varicose veins. The damaged vein is tied of and removed
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
Method for treating localized coronary artery narrowing. A balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the coronary artery and inflated to dilate the narrow blood vessel
stent
Stainless steel tube placed within a blood vessel or a duct to widen the lumen
valve replacement
Removal of a diseased heart valve and replacement with an artificial valve.
valvoplasty
Surgical procedure to repair a heart valve
ACE inhibitor drugs
Produce vasodilation and decrease blood pressure
antiarrhythmic
reduces of pervents cardiac arrhythmias
anticoagulant
Prevents blood clots formation
antilipidemic
reduces amount of cholesterol and lipids in the bloodstream; treats hyperlipidemia
antiplatelet agents
Inhibits the ability of platelets to clump together as part of a blood clot
beta-blocker drugs
treats hypertension and angina pectoris by lowering the heart rate
calcium channel blocker drugs
treats hypertension, angina pectoris and congestive heart failure by causing the heart to beat less forcefully and less often
cardiotonic
Increases the force of cardiac muscle contraction; treats congestive heart failure
diuretic
Increases urine production by the kidneys, which works to reduce plasma and therefore blood volume, resulting in lower blood pressure
thrombolytic
dissolves existing blood clots
vasoconstrictor
contracts smooth muscle in walls of blood vessels; raises blood pressure
vasodilator
relaxes the smooth muscle in the walls of the arteries, thereby increasing diameter of the blood vessel. Used for two main purposes: increasing circulation to an ischemic area; reducing blood pressure
AED
automated external defibrillator
AF
atrial fibrillation
AMI
acute myocardial infarction
AS
arterioschlerosis
ASD
atrial septal defect
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV, A-V
atrioventricular
BBB
bundle branch block (L for left, R for right)
BP
blood pressure
bpm
beats per minute
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
cath
catheterization
CC
cardiac catheterization, cheif complaint
CCU
coronary care unit
CHF
congestive heart failure
CoA
coarctation of the aorta
CP
chest pain
CPR
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CSD
congenital septal defect
CV
cardiovascular
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
ECC
extracorporeal circulation
ECG, EKG
electrocardiogram
ECHO
echocardiogram
GOT
glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
HTN
hypertension
ICD
implantable cardioveter-defibrillator
ICU
Intensive care unit
IV
intravenous
LVAD
left ventricular assist device
LVH
left ventricular hypertrophy
MI
myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency
mm Hg
millimeters of mercury
MR
mitral regurgitation
MS
mitral stenosis
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
P
pulse
PAC
premature atrial contraction
PDA
patent ductus arteriosus
PTCA
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PCV
permature ventricular contraction
S1
first heart sound
S2
second heart sound
SA, S-A
sinoatrial
SK
streptokinase
tPA
tissue-type plasminogen activator
V fib
ventricular fibrillation
VSD
ventricular septal defect
VT
ventricular tachycardia