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33 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 stages in the chain of survival
what are the steps in early recognition of deterioration to cardiac arrest
vital signs- SEWS
hypoxia
hypotension 
VT/VF
AT RISK pts
- - - remember DNAR - - -
vital signs- SEWS
hypoxia
hypotension
VT/VF
AT RISK pts
- - - remember DNAR - - -
what's the typical presenting rhythm in cardiac arrest
VT/VF- "shockable"
VT/VF- "shockable"
What are the main primarly causes for cardiac arrest
ABC!
problems with:
-ariways
-breathing
-circulation (perfusion- preload, SV, afterload)
4 methods measuring O2 delivery
SaO2
[Hb]
HR
BP (=CO x TPR)--> (CO= SV x HR) --> (SV depends on pre & afterload & contractility)
signs of compromised airway
difficulty breathing/ talking
wheeze/ stridor
SOb
accessory muscles
cyanosis
BEC treatment of compromised airway
head tilt chin lift
jaw thrust
devices: LMA, intubation
BEC: how to recognise changes in breathing
<10s
look: RR, cyanosis, accessory muscles, distress, deformities
listen: noisy?
feel: expansion, tracheal position
reversible causes: 5H's, of cardiac arrest
Hypoxia
hypovolaemia
Hypo/hyperthermia
Hypo/Hyperglycaemia
Hyperhypokalaemia
reversible causes: 5T's, of cardiac arrest
Tension pneumothorax
Trauma
Tamponade (cardiac)
Toxicity
Thromboembolism
recognition of circulatory problems
LOOK: CRT >3s, pale, cyanosed, trauma
FEEL: pulse, cold peripheries, clammy

confusion
BEC treatment of circulatory problems
A & B first!
IV access: bloods, fluids
drugs: inotropes, vasopressors, aspirin, nitrates, morphine
Assess diability (D in ABCDE)
AVPU
GCS
pupil reaction
WHAT CONDITION SHOULD you REMEMBER!?
DIABETES!
differentiate resp and cariac arrest
resp- not breathing, pule present
cardiac- not breathing, no pulse!
stages of CPR
DR ABCDE
Danger
response?
A- head tilt, chin lift, look
B&C- <10s, carotid ♥ --> SHOUT help, call 999/ 2222

CPR- 30:2, 100-120bpm, 5-6cm deep

REASSESS every: 10 breaths/ 1 min
when to stop CPR
signs of life
ambulance arries
exhaustion - take turns
how do you assess mild and severe choke?
mild- able to speak/ cough/ breath
severe- unable to breathe/ cough, wheeze
response to mild choke
encourage cough
response to severe adult choke
lean victim forwards
reassess between each action:
5 back blows
5 abdominal thrusts
severe infant choke?
only back blows
what does AVPU stand for
alert
responsive
pain
unresponsive
what do you do if someone's unresponsive and breathing?
recovery position
open AIRWAY!
change every 30mins
recovery position
open AIRWAY!
change every 30mins
what 3 additions are there in ALS (in- hosp)
assess rhythm - ECG
DEFIB shockable rhythm (VT/VF)
ADRENALINE
assess rhythm - ECG
DEFIB shockable rhythm (VT/VF)
ADRENALINE
differentiate VT and VF
VF- chaotic IRREG
VT- broad complex tachycardia, REG, mono or polymorphic
VF- chaotic IRREG
VT- broad complex tachycardia, REG, mono or polymorphic
what are non-shockable rhythms
PEA/ aystole
no pulse
PEA/ aystole
no pulse
after 3rd defib shock, which drug is given instead of ADRENALINE
AMIODARONE
4 types of shock
hypovolaemic
neurogenic
cardiogenic
septic
clinical features of shock
cold, pale, clammy, anxious
tachycardia- weak, low BP
CRT>3s
cyanosis
faint/ dizzy
confusion
BEC treatment of shock
treat cause
lay down, raise legs
warm
reassure
loosen tight clothing
monitor- no eating/ drinking/ moving
?CRP
BEC treatment fracture
relieve pain
immobilise
reduce blood loss
BEC treatment of burns
lay down
cool water 10mins
ABC & 999
remove jewelry/ clothing (unless stuck)
sterile clingfilm
REASSESS- ?shock
BEC treatment of toxins/ poisoning
what, how much, when?
?burns
SIPS water- record
ABCDE- 999