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46 Cards in this Set

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What is the Pericardium?
Pericardium outer most layer of the heart Tough fibrous, double walled sac that surrounds the heart
What is the myocardium?
Myocardium the middle layer
Muscular wall of the heart
What is the Endocardium?
Endocardium The inner most layer
Thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines the inner surface of the heart chambers and valves
What are the four valves of the heart?
Pulmonary, aortic, tricuspid, and mitral
What are the two semi lunar valves?
Pulmonary and Aoritic
What are the two Atrial and ventricle valves (AV)?
Mitral and tricuspid
What is the first sequence that the heart goes through to pump in and out blood, when the deoxigenated blood first goes in?
deoxygenated blood flows back to the heart via the sup. and inf. vena cava and enters the Rt. Atrium
What is the 2nd step the heart goes through?
From right atrium through tricuspid valve to right ventricle
What is the 3rd step the heart goes through?
From RV through pulmonic valve to pulmonary artery
What is the 4 step the heart goes through?
Oxygenated blood to lungs for O2
Pulmonary vein returns fresh O2 blood to Lt. Atrium
What is the 6th step the heart goes through?
Lt Atrium through mitral valve to Lt. ventricle
What is the 7th and final step the heart goes through?
Through aortic valve to Aorta to all parts of body
What happens when listing to the heart at S1?
S1:occurs with closure of the AV valves and signals beginning of systole
Systole is contraction
The Mitral and Tricuspid fuse as one sound and is loudest at the Apex
What happens when your hearing the S2 part of the heart beat?
S2: Second heart sound occurs with the closure of the semilunar valve and signals the end of systole
The Aortic and Pulmonic valve close about the same time
S2 : loudest at the base
What is used to describe heart sounds?
All heart sounds are described by:
Frequency (pitch) high or low. Most considered low frequency
Intensity: loud or soft
Duration: Short
Timing: Systole: When ejection occurs, or Diastole: When filling occurs
What can give the blood more turbulence?
Viscosity, velocity, structural defects
Where is the heart located in babies and children?
It is located near the 4th intercostal space because its more horizontal.
What happens to the heart durring prego?
Blood volume increases 30-40% and bpm increase 10-15 beats.
What happens to our heart and ariteris as we age?
Aged: As we age are arteries stiffen and calcify leading to arteriosclerosis causing less flexibility
Arrhythmias: Incidence of irregular heart rates increases
What can give the blood more turbulence?
Viscosity, velocity, structural defects
Where is the heart located in babies and children?
It is located near the 4th intercostal space because its more horizontal.
What happens to the heart durring prego?
Blood volume increases 30-40% and bpm increase 10-15 beats.
What happens to our heart and ariteris as we age?
Aged: As we age are arteries stiffen and calcify leading to arteriosclerosis causing less flexibility
Arrhythmias: Incidence of irregular heart rates increases
Cardiac edema is worse at night and better in morning Why?
When you lie down fluid builds up in your lungs because, the fluid comes from salt and water being retained by the kidneys because the heart did not pump them enough blood.
What is nocturia and why do people with heart problems get it?
people with heart problems get a build up of fluid because less blood flows to the kidneys causing the kidneys to retain water and salt. This often cause a overflow when it reaches the heart again, often the vains get backed up because the heart can not process that much volume, often you will see a jugular sticking out, this means that your heart has blood backed up.
What is CAD?
??????????????/
What is Angina ?
Angina is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when an area of your heart muscle doesn't get enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina may feel like pressure or squeezing in your chest. The pain also may occur in your shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. It can feel like indigestion.
What is Bruits?
is the term for the unusual sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction
What do we look for when inspecting the Precordium?
Inspect for an apical impulse at the Lt. 4th or 5th interspace. Look for a heave or lift. A heave or lift is a sustained forceful thrusting of the ventricle during systole. Occurs with ventricular hypertrophy as a result of increased workload.
What do we do to find heart murmers while palpating the mid chest with our hands?
Use palmar surface and gently palpate apex, sternal border and base for other pulsations. Compare with Carotid pulse. A well defined turbulence or “thrill” (palpable vibration) may be indicative of a murmur.
What do we to the apical impulse?
Palpate Apical Impulse at PMI (found in about half of adults) Located in one interspace at 4th or 5th at the medial or mid clavicular line.
Use palmar surface and gently palpate apex, sternal border and base for other pulsations. Compare with Carotid pulse. A well defined turbulence or “thrill” (palpable vibration) may be indicative of a murmur
Amplitude is short, gentle tap with short duration
Percussion: Used to outline heart, but Chest XR best tool for this.
Note change from resonance to dullness
What do we do when auscultating the heart?
Auscultation: Identify the 4 traditional valve areas. Think of using the Z technique:
1. Aortic: 2nd right interspace
2. Pulmonic: 2nd left interspace
3. Tricuspid: Left lower sternal border (5th i.s.)
4. Mitral: 5th interspace at mid-clavicular line
Sounds produced by the valves are heard best at these sites
Repeat sequence using the bell
What happens to B/p and apical pulse during pregnancy?
Pregnancy: HR increases, B/P decreases
Apical pulses is higher
Aged: B/P may increase, Orthostatic hypotension. Caution with pressure on carotids
May be difficult to palpate apical pulse due to A:P ratio increase
What does dyspena mean?
Shortness of breath
What does proxmal nocturnal dyspnea mean?
Proxmal- sudden onset
Nocturnal- At night
Dspnea- Shortness of breath.
What is CAD?
corrnery artery disease
What is PMI and where is it?
Point of Maximum Impulse, its found at the Apicaple pulse, 5the intercostal space mid-clavicular line. It is the Vertex of the heart. Seen in 50% of people.
What is a normal heart rate for a baby or infant?
100-180bpm
What is orthopnea?
shortness of breath while lying down?
What happens if you massage somone carotid artery?
There heart rate and BP go down, so much so that there heart can stop at times?
What does AV mean?
AV usually describes the Valves seperating the atrium and ventricle chambers; tricuspid and mitral
What is orthostatic hypotension?
B/p is low when lying down, also heart rate is up. This means that there is low blood volume.
Where is S1 heard loudest?
at the base of the heart, S1 is the sound of the AV valves (tricuspid and Mitral) closing to gether sounding as one.
Where is S2 heard the loudest?
S2 is heard loudest at the base of the heart. It signafies the end of systole. It is heard at the 2nd intercostal space left or right on the border of the stirnum.
What is an arythmia?
An irregualar heart beat.
What are the 7 pionts that we check pulse @?
Femoral, carotid, brachial, radial, popatiel, post tibial, dorlus pedius.