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85 Cards in this Set

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absorption
The third stage of food processing in animals: the uptake of small nutrient molecules by an organism's body.
alimentary canal
A digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus; also called a complete digestive tract.
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
amylase
An enzyme in saliva that hydrolyzes starch (a glucose polymer from plants) and glycogen (a glucose polymer from animals) into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose.
appendix
A small, finger-like extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity.
bile
A mixture of substances that is produced in the liver but stored in the gallbladder and that enables formation of fat droplets in water as an aid in the digestion and absorption of fats.
bolus
A lubricated ball of chewed food.
bulk feeder
An animal that eats relatively large pieces of food.
carnivore
An animal that mainly eats other animals.
cecum
The blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine.
chylomicron
A small globule that transports lipids. Chylomicrons are composed of fats mixed with cholesterol and coated with proteins.
chyme
The mixture of partially digested food and digestive juices formed in the stomach.
colon
The largest section of the vertebrate large intestine; functions in water absorption and formation of feces.
complete digestive tract
A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called an alimentary canal.
digestion
The second stage of food processing in animals: the breaking down of food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
duodenum
The first section of the small intestine, where chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder as well as from gland cells of the intestinal wall.
elimination
The fourth and final stage of food processing in animals: the passing of undigested material out of the digestive system.
enzymatic hydrolysis
The process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water.
esophagus
A channel that conducts food, by peristalsis, from the pharynx to the stomach.
essential amino acid
An amino acid that an animal cannot synthesize itself and must be obtained from food in prefabricated form. Eight amino acids are essential in the human adult.
essential fatty acid
An unsaturated fatty acid that an animal needs but cannot make.
essential nutrient
A substance that an organism must absorb in preassembled form because it cannot be synthesized from any other material. In humans, there are essential vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and fatty acids.
extracellular digestion
The breakdown of food in compartments that are continuous with the outside of an animal's body.
feces
The wastes of the digestive tract.
fluid feeder
An animal that lives by sucking nutrient-rich fluids from another living organism.
food vacuole
A membranous sac formed by phagocytosis of microorganisms or particles to be used as food by the cell.
gallbladder
An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into the small intestine.
gastric juice
A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
gastrovascular cavity
A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals that functions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
glucagon
A hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells that raises blood glucose levels. It promotes glycogen breakdown and release of glucose by the liver.
hepatic portal vein
A large circulatory channel that conveys nutrient-laden blood from the small intestine to the liver, which regulates the blood's nutrient content.
herbivore
An animal that mainly eats plants or algae.
ingestion
The first stage of food processing in animals: the act of eating.
chief cell
cell that makes inactive pepsin, cells of the stomach that produce peptinogen
parietal cell
secretes hydrochloric acid, cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
insulin
A hormone secreted by pancreatic beta cells that lowers blood glucose levels. It promotes the uptake of glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver and also stimulates protein and fat synthesis.
intracellular digestion
The hydrolysis of food inside vacuoles.
lacteal
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons.
large intestine
The tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary canal between the small intestine and the anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces.
larynx
The portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also called the voice box.
liver
The largest internal organ in the vertebrate body. The liver performs diverse functions, such as producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.
malnourishment
The long-term absence from the diet of one or more essential nutrients.
microvillus
One of many fine, finger-like projections of the epithelial cells in the lumen of the small intestine that increase its surface area.
mineral
In nutrition, a simple nutrient that is inorganic and therefore cannot be synthesized.
mucus
A viscous and slippery mixture of glycoproteins, cells, salts, and water that moistens and protects the membranes lining body cavities that open to the exterior.
notochord
A longitudinal, flexible rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate in the dorsal part of the body.
nutrition
The process by which an organism takes in and makes use of food substances.
omnivore
An animal that regularly eats animals as well as plants or algae.
oral cavity
The mouth of an animal.
overnourishment
The consumption of more calories than the body needs for normal metabolism.
pancreas
A gland with the following dual functions: The nonendocrine portion functions in digestion, secreting enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the ductless endocrine portion functions in homeostasis, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.
pepsin
An enzyme present in gastric juice that begins the hydrolysis of proteins.
pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by chief cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
peristalsis
(1) Alternating waves of contraction and relaxation in the smooth muscles lining the alimentary canal that push food along the canal. (2) A type of movement on land produced by rhythmic waves of muscle contractions passing from front to back, as in many annelids.
pharynx
(1) An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross. (2) In flatworms, the muscular tube that protrudes from the ventral side of the worm and ends in the mouth.
protease
An enzyme that digests proteins by hydrolysis.
rectum
The terminal portion of the large intestine where the feces are stored until they are eliminated.
ruminant
An animal, such as a cow or a sheep, with an elaborate, multicompartmentalized stomach specialized for an herbivorous diet.
salivary gland
A gland associated with the oral cavity that secretes substances to lubricate food and begin the process of chemical digestion.
small intestine
The longest section of the alimentary canal, so named because of its small diameter compared with that of the large intestine; the principal site of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and the absorption of nutrients.
sphincter
A ringlike valve, consisting of modified muscles in a muscular tube, that regulates passage between some compartments of the alimentary canal.
stomach
An organ of the digestive system that stores food and performs preliminary steps of digestion.
substrate feeder
An animal that lives in or on its food source, eating its way through the food.
suspension feeder
An aquatic animal, such as a sponge, clam, or baleen whale, that feeds by sifting small food particles from the water.
trachea
The portion of the respiratory tract that passes from the larynx to the bronchi; also called the windpipe.
undernourishment
A condition that results from a diet that consistently supplies less chemical energy than the body requires.
villus
(1) A finger-like projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. (2) A finger-like projection of the chorion of the mammalian placenta. Large numbers of villi increase the surface areas of these organs.
vitamin
An organic molecule required in the diet in very small amounts. Vitamins serve primarily as coenzymes or parts of coenzymes.
B1 (thiamine)
Water soluble Vitamin
found in pork Legumes, peanuts and whole grains
Functions: Coenzymes used in removing CO2 from organic compounds
B3 (niacin)
Water soluble Vitamin
found in: nuts, meat, grains
Function: Component of coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+
B9 (folic acid)
Water soluble Vitamin
found in: green vegetables, oranges nuts, legumes, whole grains
Function: coenzymes in nucleic acids and red blood cells
C (ascorbic acid)
Water soluble Vitamin
found in: citrus fruits, brocoli, tomatoes
Function: used in collagen synthesis antioxidant, and production of connective tissue
A (retinol)
Fat soluble Vitamin
found in: dark green and orange vegetables and fruits, dairy products
Function: component of visual pigments, maintenance of epithelial tissues
D
Fat soluble Vitamin
found in: Dairy products, egg yolk
Function: aids in absorption and use calcium and phosphorus, bone formation
E (tocopherol)
Fat soluble Vitamin
found in: vegetable oils , nuts seeds
Function: antioxidant; help prevent damage to cell membranes
K (phylloquinone)
Fat soluble Vitamin
found in: green vegetables, tea also made by colon bacteria
Function: important in blood clotting
What are the
...
Calcium (Ca)
Mineral
found in: dairy products, dark green vegetables, legumes
function: bone format, blood clotting, nerve and muscle function
sulfur (s)
Mineral
Found in: proteins from many sources
Function: component of many amino acids
potassium (K)
Mineral
Found in : meats , eggs, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables
Function: acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
Sodium (Na)
Mineral
found in: table salt
Function: acid-base balance, water balance, nerve function
Iron (Fe)
Mineral
Found in : meats, egg, legumes, whole grains., green leafy vegetables
Function: component of hemoglobin and of electron carriers; enzyme cofactor
Fluorine (F)
Mineral
Found in: drinking water, tea, seafood
Function: maintenance of tooth structure
Iodine (I)
Mineral
Found in: seafood, iodized salt
Function: component of thyroid hormones
Digestive tract (all)
Oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus