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118 Cards in this Set

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Kami
-spirit/god/anything larger than life
-bar pretty low for what this is – anything from politician to super great tree
– so gods are everywhere, and sacred thoroughly intermixed w secular
inner vs. outer polarity in village religion
-people live in certain restricted space
-inside is safe and valuable
-outside is bad and dangerous
live vs. death polarity in village religion
-life is very very good
-and for life you need children
-and for children you need sex
-so sex is a force for good, and it's an antidote to death/danger
-the only real taboo is sister from same mother, and also menstrual blood
pure vs. impure polarity in village religion
-goal is to maintain pure and avoid impure
-impure is anything associated with death, like corpses, or anyone who comes into contact with corpses, or blood
-blood pisses off the kami
-need purification rites
purification rites in village religion
practice much more important than ethics
affects interactions because impurity affects the community
-if there's one impure person in the community, everyone is polluted
basic building blocks in village religion
on group level - not individual
very corporate
everybody has to be pure
religion is super locative, and it takes place
Gender in village religion
uxorilocal society – having to do with wives
property passed down from motehr to daughter
children raised in the woman's home
-in upper classes polygamy is assumed (men have many wives, women only one spouse)
women not expected to be celibate before marriage, but expected to be faithful in marriage
women get own homes, men don't – they live with the wives
-lineage honors maternal ancestor
-children raised in mother's house
shamans in village religion
usually female, married to local god
ujigami
uji = clan
gami = kami
ancestors!
hitogami
equivalent of a chinese god
take offers from anyone, give to anyone
oni
demons
mountains in village religion
land of the dead – leave dead at the base of the mountains
you never go into mountains
mountain gods live there
fields in village religion
mountain god welcomed down to fields in spring festival then snow melts, come down, new rite and procreates with field god and have rice stalks where are their little babies
river gods
not a huge deal, but site of purification rites, performed by shahman
gate gods
2 gate gods, man and woman
check everyone coming through
marebito
only supernatural with ethical component
like beauty and the beast
come from outside – dangerous
founding legend of jap buddhism
korea divided into 3 kingdoms
lots of refugees go to yamato, bring writing and metal work
paekchae sends icon of buddha w letter to king of yamato
tells him everyone in asia worshipping him – best god ever
and asks for troops
-idea of metal god that you can pick up is super revolutionary
then the whole thing with the mononobe and the soga
mononobe
one of the 2 lineages at the court of the king of yamato
Warrior lineage, but also ritual stuff
very anti-buddhism, don't want to piss off local gods
soga
one of the 2 lineages at the court of the king of yamato
took lots of refugees from korea
clued into what's going on on continent
should worship buddha
Deal with the mononobe and the soga
-decide to give buddha to head of soga
-he worships buddha and a plague breaks out
-head of mononobe leads riot, burns down chapel and throws buddha into river and plague stops
-head of soga gets sick and diviniation exp says it's because he promised to worship a god and didn't follow through
-plague breaks out and only kills mononbe and ofllowers
-mononobe get pissed and band together and start civil war
-shotoku - soldier on pro buddhist side sees taht they're losing and promises to build a temple if they win
-4 guardian deities kill all mononobe buddhism becomes official state religion
what kind of kami is buddha?
-pretty much a marebito
-functions like an ujigami when head of soga gets sick for not following through
-and at the beginning he's just a hitogami
icons in japanese buddhism
massive craze
they do the work, not the text (most japanese not literate)
-korean immigrants make them
-gotta build temple and icon and use for own purposes
-karmic arms race – want to one-up everyone
-worship and hope brings you what want
-animate – have likes and dislikes
- hollow so can stuff them wiht good stuff
ko
people who come together for a meritorious act
-usually building an icon
-like village will band resources together to build a really big buddha
-villages start working together
characteristics of icons in japanese buddhism
1) animate
2) require rare resources (need to be rich)
3) portable – bring with you
4) localizable (village buddha)
5) can always make more
6) make great gifts
king of yamato
starts calling self emperor of japan
no war (no army) but cultural capitol
small domains -> pt of bureaucracy
state buddhism
get buddhism, and that leads to political and social forms that eventually become japan
-japan couldn't have had without buddhism
-this is iconic buddhism
-not interested in diffusing practice and doctrine – state has monopoly
-monks have to be licensed by state and can't leave state temple
gyoki, part 1
japanese monk goes out and organizes workers into ko
-tells them that get just as much karma helping poor as do building icons
-tells them to go spread word - get counter buddhism movement
-also tells people to become unlicensed monks (instead go and pray to buddha for 7 days and nights without food or sleeping and if get vision buddha has ordained you)
-counter sangha, don't have to pay taxes
-govt gets pissed
-gets banned
gyoki's method of becoming a monk
pray to buddha for 7 days and nights without food or sleep and if you get a sign, you're ordained
shomu's plans for the sangha
-very devout, wants to promote buddhist state - starts study groups, etc
-build a city in which build temples, etc
-but that was expensive and he was a sucky ruler, so people got overtaxed and there was famine and the people were pissed and there was a revolt and shomu v insecure
-get report from group studying vinaya (precepts) saying monks guaranteed good rebirth and that they have prayers to protect the ruler and the govt
-but have to be a properly ordained monk, which they don't have
-which sucks because his main point was supporting the sangha
good news and bad news from shomu's study group
good:
-monks guarenteed a good rebirth
-have prayers to protect the ruler and govt

bad:
-to properly ordain a monk, need 10 properly ordained monks present and they've never done anything that way
-so suddenly they have no sangha, which sucks because that was his main selling point
so what does shomu do to solve his problem of the sangha?
sends people off to find an ordination master in china to come back and reordain the sangha
-find ganju, who speicalizes in mass ordination
-tell ganji about shotoku
-ganji's teacher's teacher was hui-ke, the guy who brought the lotus sutra to china
-hui ke died almost the same day shotoku is born, and had promised to bring lotus sutra to land without buddhism
-so agrees to come
-but has terrible luck and takes 10 years to get there
shotoku
HUGE figure in japanese buddhism, interpreted the lotus sutra
-hui ke died almost the same day shotoku is born, and had promised to bring lotus sutra to land without buddhism
-so ganji agrees to come
what happened in japan while they were getting ganji?
-worst famine in japanese history – 1/3 of population dies
-build too many icons and temples, and not enough planning
-even court and fujiwara sublineages start to die
-shomu vows to build the largest buddhist icon in the world
-but have no money, so call gyoki back from banishment and he says the emperor needs to build a ko nation out of all of japan
-and it works and everyone pitches in
great buddha – building
-have to pull gyoki out of banishment because need him as fundraiser
-he says make japan into a ko, and it works
-want to cover in gold leaf, but not that much gold in all of japan
-send people to shrines and pray to kami
-hachiman, previously unimportant deity, sent down oracle saying would get gold
-and a month later they did
-built buddha in nara
hachiman
previously unimportant deity who provided gold for the great buddha
-sends down another oracle says wants to be moved from hometown to capitol next to buddha's shrine
ganji in japan
shows up ready to divide the sangha from the lay, just as they're about to animate hachiman's icon
-too late, push him to the side
take away messages from the building of the great buddha
definition of kingship shifts – now leader of a ko that everyone is involved in
-had been forced to give everyone equal merit
-buddhism creates a nation
-shifts definition of what japan is
-resounding affirmation of icons as ultimate source of power
buddhism and kami, after gread buddha story
-complicated relationship
-part of ko, worshipping buddha, and yet couldn't have done it without hachima, and now he's standing guard over the buddha, so buddha needs him too
precepts (vinaya) post great buddha
because gyoki wins, issue of how to make a monk never gets resolved
-now no one center of buddhism, so sangha kind of iffy. 2.5 treasures, not 3
-get diff kind of buddhism
when shomu retires
puts daughter, koken, a nun, on the throne
-controversial, because no heir
he says non-issue because it's a buddhism nation
-some econ hardship... dokyo (new monk) comes out of nowhere
dokyo (rise)
claims to know sanskrit -> knows buddhist spells
-heals koken and her mom
tells her to build even bigger temple
-never gets built, but gets resources channeled for it, and becomes prime minister
-fujiwara starts revolt, but dokyo w hachiman in hand defeats the fujiwara
-basically becomes co-ruler
dokyo (fall)
oracle comes along and says a monk should be emperor
-but fujiwara send a monk with a huge grudge against dokyo, to confirm what monk says
-monk confirms, but hten an oracle from hachiman shows up and says that no buddhism monk should ever be emperor, only descendents of sun goddess amaterasu
-decide to put someone else on throne
what happens after dokyo falls and someone else gets put on throne?
capital moved to heian (now kyoto)
-decide to start over without buddhism
-male succession in court --> male succession everywhre
-decide to radically change buddhism
saicho
-monk that kanmu finds after moving capitol, in order to change nature of buddhism
-practiced like hermit & studied ganji's texts
-agrees that lotus sutra is the ultimate
-goes to china to tien-tai mountains and find shotoku's real japanese buddhism
-comes back after a year, and kanmu says he can be the head teacher of buddhism
-shotoku asks for mount hiei, which is northeast of capitol city - where demons come from
-becomes a spiritual fortress
-asks for monks
Tendai school
-best academic inst in japan
-6 months just study lotus sutra
-other 6 months do 5 very intense practices developed by hui-ssu
-every monk after that who starts a new movement pretty much starts out on mt. hiei
4 very intense practices of the tendai school
1) sitting meditation
2) chanting name of buddha amida
3) walking meditation
4) chanting lotus sutra
5) circumambulating mt. hiei for 3 months at a time, w only a few hrs of sleep a night, have to wear monk outfits even though it snows every day. so if you don't keep your focus your feet will fall off
problem with tendai school
not all monks knew what they we're getting themselves into
most ran away to nara as soon as found out
new regulations saicho gets kanmu to put on the tendai school
1) once on hiei can't leave for 10 years
2) wants new ordination platform so can ordain monks on hiei
- says bc Nara monks using outdated ordination methods
-new precepts mean all hell breaks loose
why does all hell break loose when saicho gets his new regulations?
monks in nara write to emperor all pissed because now that ordained in different group can't run off to nara bc they're trapped under saicho – not recognized as monks by other monastaries
-he's sundering the sangha - bc of sectarianism no longer able to say "we're all buddhist monks"
kukai
-buddhist monk – very good at marketing himself
-befriends kanmu's son (new emperor)
-tells emp to send him to china to get more teachings
-spends 5 years there, becomes disciple of national teacher, learns esoteric buddhism
-goes back to japan and explains how hui-ssu's buddhism was old fashioned
-his is about power and channeling karma however you want
what emperor does after finding out about esoteric buddhism
-emporer asks saicho for lecture on esoteric buddhism
-saicho doesn't know anything about it
-so asks for kanmu to give him help and kanmu says he's free to learn if he wants to be disciple
-so saicho sends monk to be disciple and monk stays with kanmu so saicho suffers great embarassment
-still have bad relations today - nara schools adopted and it was bigger in day, but didn't leave good disciples
-saicho sends some people to china and get fusion-y type between lotus and esoteric
eoteric buddhism
-pedagogical
-have to teach people where they are
-we're good at anger fear and lust
-uses whole person - channel through pedagogical system to reach higher synthesis
-use all 5 senses through body mind and passion
-2 truths (absolute and relative) but can't just go from relative to absolute
-means enlightenment and delusion are interdependent
-have to embrace both at once - can't just abandon the passions
-have to accept truths and falsehoods within delusion
-within the reality of a movie, certain things are true and false, even though none of it is real in an absolute sense (like watching a movie knowing it's a movie but still want to be engaged)
practices of esoteric buddhism
mantras
mudras
icons and mandalas
mantras
-set of fundamental presuppositions about how world works and one is that it runs on the sounds of the sanskrit language
-true names of buddhas are sanskrit
-name not really different from object
-if know names then can use karma inherent in them
mudras
body positions
that's why buddhas have different positions
-so if combine mantras and mudras, i think you're more like a buddha or something
icons/mandalas in esoteric buddhism
mandalas symmetric from every angle
-meditate on them
-center has symbols of cosmos, usually 5 buddhas
-start to do visualization meditations – like see buddha and visualize that you're part of assembly and if you're REALLY adept can make yourself one with the buddha
-can map mandalas on body (5 organs, swirl qi between them)
- basically a departure point
what ultimately happens to ganji
- kind of arrogant - didn't realize have support of state
- did bring iconography and also 10 monks who taught important things about how to be a monk
-very influential on saicho
Hijiri
-new monks go to country and leave monastary
-large responsibility for buddhism in japan
-wanted to go to mountains and tap into resevoir of spiritual power
-start to mandalize japan – so living inside the mandala
-lives extraordinary life - and people really impressed by monks who come back out mountains
What hijiri does on the mountains
build little chapels and built shrines next to them
-people go up and pray to buddha and god of the mountain
effect of temple-shrine complexes
-kami worship paired up with buddha worship
-monks start promoting worship on their mountains – become biggest promoters of famous kami
-doctrine of honji-suijaku
honji-suijaku
kami are all buddhas/ manifestations
-they are skillful means
-when buddhsim was founded, japan was uncivilized and not ready for it
-had kami as manifestation so were worshipping buddha all along
-can ask kami for stuff you wouldn't ask the buddha for
-specific buddhas get paired up with specific kami
-blurs line between buddha and kami
Nembutsu
calling on buddha amida to come and save you
anyone who calls upon him in faith gets to go to pure land in the west
nembutsu with the hijiri
-common people want to know how to protect themselves the way the hijiri did in the mountain
-this isn't a sanskrit mantra so could teach to commoners
-"namu amida butsu"
-spell
-if you kill someone and don't want them to haunt you, send off to pure land with it
goryo
die bearing a grudge
-righteous anger
-have karma on their side and also an agenda
what does advent of goryo show us
karma has penetrated the religious imagination
-new kind of religious imagination - targeted anger, not like pissed off marebito
-buddhism isn't just solving problems – creating and then solving them
most famous goryo
michizane
michizane
most famous goryo
prominant scholar, eventually made prime minister
-fujiwara technique to produce daughters, become head consort, have crown prince become emp, become regent, marry cp to cousin, over and over
-but fujiwara women stop producing sons, so emp decides to break away
-fujiwara pissed, so emp consults michizana who decides in his favor
-later, emp really need's fujiwara's help, and they say they'll only give it if he exiles michizana. and he does.
-m dies... but doesn't die. huge problems chez fujiwara
-try to get him away but wont until build huge shrine and promise to worship forever
solution to goryo
nembutsu
buddha amida
promises anyone who makes it to pure land will never have bad rebirth, stay there until enlightenment
-so if send enemies there can't come back and bother you
genshin
-aristocratic monk
-starts on hiei
-writes ojoyoshi (1st japanese best seller – makes it to china)
-fascinated by nembutsu (tendai practice too)
-fascinated by what happens post death
-discovers hell
-1st part of book compilation of very vivid description of what happens when you die
-2nd book says what happens if you're good – get to go to pure land
how genshin says to get to pure land
do good works whole life º tons of karmic merit
read/copy scripture
-offerings to buddha
-most importantly, chant the nembutsu and create a link to amida
-hopefully when die he will come for you
-spell is now scripture/official practice
art of dying
final thoughts, genshin says, send you on trajectory
-says best way to assure good thoughts is to join a nembutsu ko
-when about to die, get together and chant nembutsu
-get case studies on art of dying
-windowless room, with amida in front of them, chant nembutsu in ear, even if unconscious so positive last thought will be amida
meaning of term honji-suijaku
honji=original esence
suijaku=manifestation
bkgd of Honen
-comes around time with huge # of improperly buried dead
-exposes weakness of court – realizes all military might lies in warrior families
-minamoto comes out on top, realizes they are head of military might in japan
-build new capitol in kamakura
-told emp he was still in charge, but they were going to gov and rule the warriors and make sure no unrest.
-they take over more and more and court shrivels, as does buddhism which relies on court suport
Minamoto
realizes they are head of military might in japan
-build new capitol in kamakura
-told emp he was still in charge, but they were going to gov and rule the warriors and make sure no unrest.
-they take over more and more and court shrivels, as does buddhism which relies on court suport
Honen
-from tendai school
-fascinated with mappo (final age)
-last possible day for mappo comes and things get crappy (famine, war, declining sangha, etc).
-concerned about how to practice in final age
mappo
final age
Honen's dispair
looks at tendai doctrine of original enlightenment and says it's useless - says real suffering, and no amount of realizing will help. so no wisdom-oriented practice.
-karma no good because getting ahead and getting better rebirth are no good
-karma is who we are, so while it sours, we sour
-nobody in final age can keep precepts because can't keep them in heart
-has nervous breakdown
Honen's solution
-gives up and discovers the answer - the Nembutsu!
-not just to get Goryo away/get amida to come like you
-it's about realizing that only Amida can save you
-trying to save yourself means you're going to hell. Amida can do it because he's not from his world
-all you have to do is chant the nembutsu - really easy, great for illiterate farmers, warriors who think about to die... all you have to do is say nembutsu last
What does honen's solution mean?
-so focus entirely on Buddha Amida, sangha irrelevant
-ko very important
-no self = realizing that your own self is inadequate and practice doesn't work
-all you have to do is chant the nembutsu - really easy, great for illiterate farmers, warriors who think about to die... all you have to do is say nembutsu last
-goal is salvation, not wisdom
-can meditate once you're there for enlightenment, but pure land is really the goal
Criqitue of honen
want to know why he thinks it's hte only practice
-fostering disrespect for sangha
-problem of telling people to stop worrying about karma = no morality
what honen says about his practice being the only one
-says any other practice is trying to save yourself which sends you to hell
-this makes things very sectarian
what honen has to say about his fostering disrespect for the sangha
nothing he can do about that
what honen has to say about the karma issue
-says nembutsu is something you have to feel in your heart
-chant it out of gratitude but if you really feel it, it changes you
-encouraged to change as much as possible
-have to believe but also want to be a good person
what honen has to say about being a good person
"if buddha amida will save a failed monk like me, how much happier will he be to save a good man"
Shinran's beginings
also begins career on mt. hiei
interested in precepts - how to keep, practice, be good monk, etc.
-despairs
-keeps 100 night vigil
-asks boddhisatva kannon if should remain a monk
-comes down and says that if a monk needs sex, she'll appear in the form of a woman and no defilement in act
-he takes it as meaning you can ignore the precepts
-becomes devoted follower of honen
Shinran's exile
go to chant for ladies of the court and stay the night
-usually means death for monk and teacher but exiled instead. Honen kept close, but shinran gets sent really far. ruminates for 15 years.
-gets married to let people know he's like htem
-loves telling people he's a failed monk - reminder that he can't do it and if you think he can then hell
Shinran's doctrine
absolute grace
Absolute grace
nothing you can do about it
-other power vs. self. self gets you sent to hell. only other power can save you.
-says being worried about morality will get you sent to hell because still believe on some level that it could save you.
what shinran has to say about being a good person
"if buddha amida will save even a good man, how much more will he delight in saving a failed monk"
shinran and the nembutsu
denounces constant chanting, because if you really *know* buddha amida is coming, don't have to constantly chant the nembutsu to remind you. only have to chant it one time. like an elevator - only press the button once.
ise
the buddhist school associated with amaterasu
what happens in japan (right before the birth of shinto) with the court
loses tons of money
most important gods are the ones associated with power
when court goes south, shrines break off and go out on their own, and sell amulets telling people to join their ko and they'll get worldly benefit
doctrine of reverse honji-suijaku
reverse honji-suijaku
kami there at the beginning of the world
the buddhas are something hte kami do to promote morality
kami come first and can do whatever they want
dogen - beginning
a monk, japands greatest philosopher
transmits zen buddhism to japan, from aristogratic family
begins on hiei around the same time as honen and shinran
buys the idea that we're already enlightened
wonders why we need to practice then
becomes dissatisfied with hiei and decides to go to china
dogen in china/just getting back
goes and finds chan master
5 years of very intense practice
has enlightenment experience, verified by teacher
goes back to japan, says he's the only one in japan with enlightenment by original buddha
tells people chinese practice is the best
tell people to intensly meditate all the time – very intense, not many followers
one day gets whole bunch of followers...
dogen and his followers
gets a whole bunch of followers from a teacher who's been banned
-realizes they're still attached to their old teacher
His recollections of chan begin to change
dogen's story (changed recollection)
recalls that came to hongzho, port in china, center of chan. meets the monk (cook) at a monastery
monk offers to bring him to monastery. stop to buy mushrooms.
go to temple. next day sees him laying them out. asks why he, old man, is doing it, man says "who else but me?"
asks why doing in middle of day, when so hot, says "when else but now?"
what dogen realized from the story with the old man
says taught him essence of chan buddhism but too blind to see it at the time. only person who cna achieve enlightenment is you and only time is right now.
dogen's new preactices
1) just sitting
2) "being" time
3) koan of every day life
just sitting
dogen practice
being COMPLETELY focused
focus on that present moment – most important moment in history
meaning of non-duality – being completely focused
being time
one of dogen's practices
if focus on past present and future, hopelessly tangled in dualism
-all interdependent on each other
-your enlightenment is interconnected with enlightenment of all other beings at all times
koan of everyday life
one of dogen's practices
"show me you understand interdependence"
have to show understanding in EVERY moment – koan asked again every moment of every day
for him practice is a constant thing
-practice doesn't get you to enlightenment, practice IS enlightenment
dogen's view of karma
-if caught up in reincarnation (ideas of lives being different in general, then stuck in dualistm and don't understand non-dualism
nichiren
begins on mount hiei
also buys tendai notion of original enlightenment and implications of lotus sutra
but also believes that we're in mappo and that amida is NOT the answer
-nichiran says he's a reincarnation of a boddhisatva
specializing in the lotus sutra
nichiren beliefs
believes that we're in mappo and that amida is NOT the answer
says sakyamuni (original) gave us the lotus sutra so we could get through the final age
-only he is the buddha to look to
-says only japan has correctly revered the lotus sutra so only japan will be saved
-says have to tell people to revere lotus sutra and chant/call upon name of lotus and then gods of japan will protect it and make it a buddhist paradise
how was nichiren received by the nobility?
he said they were going to hell, so not that well
-persecuted like crazy and sentenced to death on several occasions, but each time made it out alive bc of miracle
kamikaze (and story)
holy winds

story: nichiren geos to kamakura and tells shoguns people that if they don't listen that hte mongols will invade
-sentenced to death, and on way to death, goes and screams at hatchiman and says will come get him when dies.
-escapes, and mongols come, but then kamikaze sink their ships
-everyone takes credit
-doesn't get why mongols don't invade but it's ok because his followers go on and now it's worldwide one of the most hugely popular forms of buddhism
do just you get saved in nichren's method?
nope, everyone has to get saved for it to work
kannon
kannon is the boddhisatva that shinran prays to ask if he should remain a monk.
she says that if a monk needs sex, she will come down in the form of a lady and there will be no defilement in the act. so he takes that to mean disregard morality.
importance of ojoyoshu
marks shift of Japanese religion as going from something that focuses on getting stuff in this life to focusing on next life instead.
Dainichi/Vairocana
Main Buddha of esoteric Buddhism, the name of the cosmic
Buddha. Important for the Shingo school. The Great Buddha is a statue of him. He’s
also important for Honji-suijaku. Dainichi means great sun.
why does nembutsu work in the final age?
it's not something you're doing. you're just professing your faith in amida.
other power
by Pure land Buddhist when speaking about Amida.
Nembutsu works in final age because it’s not something you’re doing, it’s not
a practice of yours (creating karma, in Genshin’s understanding of Nembutsu).
Through grace of Amida, Amida is doing it. It’s relying on the power of Amida. Must
realize that any self of yours is inadequate. Must rely on absolute grace of Amida.
amida's primal vow
the vows he makes in order to become a buddha.
1) will create a pure land
2) people in the pure land will never have a bad rebirth
3) he will take anybody who calls upon him in death to the pure land
self ordination
gyoki's idea that you have to be ordained direct from the buddha since that's the only thing you can trust in the final age.

the thing where you will take a rite in front of an icon and ask for a sign from
the Buddha icon to show that the person has been ordained.
whose idea is self-ordination?
gyoki
emperor tenmu
first ruler to declare himself as an emperor, sets everything in
motion for the next 150 years. Start to build a permenant capital gets Nara from
this. Masters the art of using icons and uses soft-power to establish a bureaucracy
that really runs Japan, his descendents keep majestify everything and try to top each
other. Also makes the imperial law code for monks, such as staying in state temples