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84 Cards in this Set

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Which of the following can be used to soften the exposed face of paraffin-embedded tissue that is too hard to section, such as uterine tissue?

a) acid
b) glycerine
c) heat
d) xylene
b) glycerine
The supplier sent paraffin with a melting point of 50°C to 52°C by mistake. When compared to paraffin with a melting point of 55°C, this paraffin weill:
ribbon more easily

yield thicker sections

provide better support for small/soft tissues

require a cooler water bath
A different kind of paraffin is under consideration for use in the laboratory. An important fact to remember is that as the melting point of paraffin is increased, the paraffin:
becomes harder

ribbons more difficultly

yields thinner sections
To obtain a small bowel showing mucosa, sub-mucosa, muscularis externa, and adventitia, the tissue must be embedded:
on edge
Holes are noted in a frozen section of skeletal muscle. This is most likely the result of:
freezing the specimen too slowly
The angle formed between the block face and the cutting facet of a knife is known as the:
clearance angle
Which of the following will most likely be corrected by soaking a faced block in ice water?

a) lengthwise splits in the sections
b) compressed and jammed sections
c) microscopic chatter
d) mushy sections
c) microscopic chatter
Which of the following artifacts may be introduced during the flotation process?

a) holes in the tissue
b) the "venetian blind" effect
c) lengthwise splits in the ribbon
d) separation of tissue elements
d) separation of tissue elements
Which of the following embedding procedures involves first infiltrating the tissue with one medium and then embedding it in another?

a) double
b) resin
c) routine
d) vacuum
a) double
A section of liver is cut in the cryostat and the sections obtained are alternately thick and thin, with a distinct "venetian blind" effect. The most probably cause of this artifact is that the:
knife is dull
The type of microtome used for routine paraffin sectioning is a:
rotary microtome
When frozen sections stick to a cryostat anti-roll plate, the plate is:
too warm
Knives used for sectioning paraffin blocks should be cleaned with:
xylene and alcohol
To remove grit and dirt before embedding, paraffin may have to be:
filtered
Microorganism contaminants on slides are usually picked up from:
the flotation bath
When a frozen tissue block rubs the anti-roll plate, the plate is:
too far above the knife plate
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section reveals the presence of irregular holes scattered throughout the section. This is most likely caused by:
sections being taken immediately after "rough facing" of the block
It is important that the facet of a cryostat knife be small to prevent:
problems with the anti-roll plate
Multiple skin sections should be embedded with the epithelial surfaces facing in:
the same direction
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section reveals marked background staining. This is most likely caused by:
excess section adhesive on the slide
Sections of paraffin-embedded tissue show straight lines that appear to be fissures of cuts running at many different angles. This artifact is most likely due to:
use of quick-freeze spray to chill the block
Hard or bony tissue should be embedded:
at an angle
Tubular tissue structures should be embedded:
on end
To protect the exposed tissue during storage, paraffin blocks may need to be:
dipped
The edge of a newly-sharpened microtome knife should be checked with a:
dissecting microscope
A microtome is the most likely cause of poor sections when the microtome is:
old or has worn surfaces
When frozen sections appear above the anti-roll plate of a cryostat, the plate is:
too far below the knife edge
Biopsies of which of the following tissue should be sections at 2micrometers?

a) bladder
b) heart
c) kidney
d) liver
c) kidney
Which of the following will cause a split or lengthwise scratch in a paraffin ribbon?

a) debris on the knife edge
b) inadequate processing
c) a knife edge that is too sharp
d) using embedding paraffin with the wrong melting point
a) debris on the knife edge
The purpose of embedding tissue in paraffin is to:
provide support
Which of the following groups of special stains requires sections to be cut at 8 to 10 micrometers?

a) Congo red, Lieb crystal violet, Bielchowsky
b) Kinyoun, Snook, Oil red O
c) von Kossa, Fontana-Masson, Sudan black B
d) Verhoeff-van Gieson, aldehyde fuchsin, Masson trichrome
a) Congo red, Lieb crystal violet, Bielchowsky
During sectioning of a block of uterine tissue, alternate thick and thin zones are observed. This is most likely caused by:
vibration of the knife
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section reveals the presence of extraneous epithelial cells. This is most likely caused by:
albumin spread on the slide by the finger
Disposable knife blades should be discarded:
in a "sharps" box
When tissue varies in hardness within a sample, such as skin or bone, the block should be positioned in the microtome so that the:
knife passes through the hardest portion last
Of the following tissues, which should be sectioned at 3 micrometers?

a) brain
b) breast
c) liver
d) lymph node
d) lymph node
When frozen sections split vertically as they are cut, the anti-roll plate is:
defective on the edge
Which of the following knife profiles is recommended for the majority of paraffin microtomy?

a) biconcave
b) planoconcave
c) tool edge
d) wedge
d) wedge
The orientation of a specimen for embedding should be decided during:
grossing
When cutting 30um sections of fixed brain tissue in a -15°C cryostat, the sections fragment at the knife edge. This problem could most likely be prevented by:
raising the cryostat temperature to -5°C
Unfixed cryostat sections are most commonly attached to slides by:
picking them up from the knife onto a clean, warm slide
When paraffin with a 54°C to 56°C melting point is used for embedding, the temperature of the flotation bath should fall within which of the following temperature ranges?

a) 41°C to 45°C
b) 46°C to 50°C
c) 51°C to 55°C
d) 56°C to 60°C
b) 46°C to 50°C
Routine cryostat sections are usually cut at:
-20°C
Lubricants used during knife sharpening are usually composed of:
oil
Sections are being lifted from the knife on the upstroke. This is probably because the:
knife tilt is incorrect
Which of the following groups of abrasive compounds is used for micrtome knife sharpening?

a) carborundum, diamon, zinc oxide
b) diamond, zinc oxide, jewler's rouge
c) lead acetate, zinc oxide, jeweler's rouge
d) carborundum, diamond, jeweler's rouge
d) carborundum, diamond, jeweler's rouge
Cryostat sections of fixed tissue are tending to float off the slides during staining. This problem can be prevented in the future by:
coating the slides with an adhesive mixture
The proper speed for cutting frozen sections:
is similar to that used for paraffin sections
The block is faced and sections are cut and mounted on a slide. More of the block is trimmed away and more sections are cut and mounted on a slide. The sections produced by this technique are known as:
levels
To prevent the formation of a thick layer of paraffin on the bottom of the mold during embedding, the tissue must be:
embedded quickly and neatly
The tissue surface to be cut should be placed against which aspect of the embedding mold?
bottom
Paraffin is converted from the fluid state to the solid state by:
crystallization
Routine paraffin sections are cut at what micrometer setting?
4-5
As the block face is trimmed, the knife digs into the tissue and gouges out a chunk. The most probably cause of this problem is that the:
the block is loose in the chuck
Nuclear bubbling is seen on an H&E section. This most likely was caused by:
drying undrained slides at too high a temperature
The clearance angle used with most microtome knives is:
3 to 8 degrees
Microscopic examination of an H&E-stained section reveals the presence of extraneous tumor cells. This is most likely caused by:
the flotation bath not being cleaned between blocks
Layered structures such as cyst wall and gallbladder should be embedded:
on edge
During paraffin embedding, it is noted that several sections appear soft and mushy. This is most likely due to:
inadequate processing
Which of the following is necessary to ensure a straight ribbon?

a) horizontal sides of the block must be parallel
b) vertical sides of the block must be parallel
c) horizontal and vertical sides of the block must be parallel
d) the microtome wheel must be rotated rapidly
a) the horizontal sides of the block must be parallel
Microscopic examination of stained slides shows bacilli on, but not in, the tissue sections. The most probably cause of this contaminant is that:
the water bath was not cleaned after previous use
Paraffin used for embedding should be how many degrees centigrade above the melting point of the medium?
2 to 4
Sections of brain that tend to wash off slides during staining can be adhered to the slides by coating the section/slide with:
poly-L-lysine
Frozen sections are required when:
immediate microscopic evaluation is required
When frozen sections partially jam and partially slide under the anti-roll plate, the plate is:
not parallel to the knife edge
One cause of sections sticking to each other or to parts of the microtome is:
static electricity
Microtome knives used for paraffin sectioning are usually made of:
carbon steel
Which of the following groups of plates may be used to support abrasive powders and lubricants for sharpening knives?

a) copper, glass, and iron
b) aluminum, copper, and glass
c) copper, iron, and glass
d) glass, aluminum, and iron
a) copper, glass, and iron
Which of the following problems will be seen in paraffin sections that are floated out on a flotation bath that is too cold?

a) cracks
b) folds
c) separations
d) stretching
b) folds
During microtomy, several successive paraffin sections are compressed and wrinkled. The most appropriate action is to:
change to a new blade
Cryostate Temperature Chart:

Monday -20°C
Tuesday -15°C
Wednesday -18°C
Thursday -23°C
Friday -26°C

On which day would sectioning of breast tissue be most difficult?
Tuesday
Which of the follwing could be substituted for gelatin as an additive to the flotation bath?

a) aminoalkylsaline
b) chromium potassium sulfate
c) poly-L-lysine
d) agar
d) agar
During microtomy, it is noted that a faced block that has been soaking in ice water contains a bulging white area. This is most likely the result of:
inadequate dehydration
Lymph node tissue shatters when sectioned in a cryostat maintained at -20°C. The most appropriate action is to:
warm the block slightly
For good demonstration of myelin sheaths, paraffin sections should be:
cut 10um to 15um thick
In paraffin microtomy, knowledge of the possible disease process present in the tissue may be important because it may change the requirements in:
section thickness (different stains need different thickness)
Prominent peripheral chatter is obtained on sections of a paraffin block that has been routinely fixed and processed. This can probably be corrected by recutting the block:
after soaking it in ice water
Slides used for mounting open-top cryostat frozen sections should be kept at the same temperature as the:
room
Paraffin sections should be cut at 2um when studying:

a) basement membranes
b) amyloid
c) myelin
d) nerve fibers
a) basement membranes
The tissue block fails to advance during preparation of frozen sections. This probably could be corrected by:
cleaning and oiling the microtome
An H&E-stained lymph node section reveals oberlapping nuclei. This indicates that the section is most likely:
too thick
The material of choice for immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme histochemical studies is:
cryostat sections
When a femoral head is sectioned, the marrow portion sections satisfactorily but the cortex fragments. The most probably cause of this problem is that the:
compact bone is underdecalcified
A fingernail has been fixed in formalin, routinely processed, and embedded in paraffin. The tissue is very hard and sections are difficult to obtain. Sectioning quality will be improved and tissue components will be best preserved and demonstrated by gently facing the block and:
soaking in a solution that softens keratin