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38 Cards in this Set

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Paranasal Sinuses
are cavities in the =
3ct
maxillary
ethmoid
sphenoid
connected with the nasal cavity.
Paranasal Sinuses
are lined with a thinner =
ciliated respiratory epithelium with few _______ cells
goblet
Paranasal Sinuses
lamina propria is thin and contains few small glands and lies on
periosteum of the bone.

Erectile or cavernous tissue is not present.
*Paranasal sinuses are often a site of
painful inflammation

, sinusitis.

pic
Nasopharynx
is lined by
typical respiratory epithelium
In areas subjected to abrasions,


a _____ ___ ___ may occur.
nonkeratinizing stratified squamous
Nasopharynx
Underlying connective tissue contains
mucous, serous
mixed glands.
Nasopharynx
The lymphatic tissue is irregularly scattered throughout
and also form
tonsillar structures
(pharyngeal tonsils or adenoids)

on the posterior wall.
Nasopharynx
palatine and lingual tonsils
at the junction of the oral cavity and
pharyngeal tonsil in the nasopharynx collectively forms a protective ring________ ________ guarding access to the lower reaches of respiratory and oral cavities.
(Waldeyer’s ring)

(upper respiratory tract infection)
is a aka =
*Sore throat
Larynx
The two main functions of the larynx are
to produce sound
2. to close the trachea during swallowing to prevent food and saliva from entering the airway.
Larynx
The wall of the larynx is made up of the
thyroid and cricoid hyaline cartilage and the elastic cartilage core of the epiglottis extending over the lumen
Extrinsic laryngeal muscles attach the larynx to the hyoid bone to
raise the larynx during swallowing.
Intrinsic laryngeal muscles
abductor
adductors
tensors
link the _____ & _____ =
thyroid
cricoid cartilages

When intrinsic muscles contract, the tension on the vocal cords changes to modulate phonation.
The larynx can be subdivided into three regions:
supraglottis,
glottis
subglottis

Stratified unkeratinized & keritanized & vocal cord change
The supraglottis, which includes the epiglottis, false vocal cords (or folds), and laryngeal ventricles. 

The glottis, consisting of the true vocal cords (or folds) and the anterior and posterior commissures. 

The subglottis, the region below the tr
The supraglottis, which includes the epiglottis, false vocal cords (or folds), and laryngeal ventricles.

The glottis, consisting of the true vocal cords (or folds) and the anterior and posterior commissures.

The subglottis, the region below the true vocal cords, extending down to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage.

During forced inspiration, vocal cords are abducted, and the space between the vocal cords widens.
supraglottis,
epiglottis
false vocal cords the epiglottis, false vocal cords
(or folds),
laryngeal ventricles.
glottis
true vocal cords (or folds) and
anterior commissures
posterior commissures.

During forced inspiration, vocal cords are =
abducted,
and the space between the vocal cords widens.
subglottis
the region below the true vocal cords, extending down to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage.
Larynx
vocal cords
a cover consisting of
-stratified squamous
-superficial layer of the lamina propria, aka =

Elsewhere, the epithelium is pseudostratified ciliated, with goblet cells. =
Reinke's space

pseudostratified ciliated, with goblet cells.
Larynx
Laryngeal seromucous glands are found throughout the lamina propria, except at the level of the =
true vocal cords.

pic
Larynx
Laryngea contains l________ glands
seromucous
lamina propria of the true vocal cords consists of three layers:
superficial =
intermediate =
deep =
-extracellular matrix 

-few elastic fibers

-abundant elastic and collagen fibers
-extracellular matrix

-few elastic fibers

-abundant elastic and collagen fibers
_____ _______ are responsible for vocal cord vibration.
Reinke's space

& the epithelial covering
Reinke's edema
viral infection
, trauma (laryngeal endoscopy),
severe coughing

cause what to occur
fluid to accumulate in the superficial layer of the lamina propria.
Reinke's space
Both the intermediate and deep layer of the lamina propria constitute the
vocal ligament.

The lamina propria is usually rich in =
mast cells
Mast cells participate in
hypersensitivity reactions leading to edema and laryngeal obstruction, a potential medical emergency.
Croup designates a
laryngotracheobronchitis

in children, in which an inflammatory process =
narrows the airway and produces inspiratory stridor.
Epiglottis

projects from the rim of the
larynx

extends into the =
pharynx

and has both a lingual and a laryngeal surface.
Epiglottis
entire lingual surface and the apical portion of the laryngeal surface are covered with
stratified squamous epithelium.
Epiglottis
Toward the base of the epiglottis on the laryngeal surface, the epithelium undergoes a transition into
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium.
_______ & __________ glands are found beneath the epithelium. Core contains elastic cartilage.
Mixed mucous glands
serous glands

pic
The trachea is the continuation of the larynx.
T/F
Thin walled tube.
T
10 cm long

branches to form the =
right and left primary bronchi entering the hilum of each lung.
The hilum is the region where the
primary bronchus
pulmonary artery
pulmonary vein
nerves
lymphatics
enter and leave the lung.
Secondary divisions of the bronchi and accompanying connective tissue septa divide
each lung into lobes.
The wall of the trachea consists of
4ct
Mucosa
Submucosa
Cartilagenous layer
Adventitia
Mucosa
Submucosa
Cartilagenous layer
Adventitia
Trachea Epithelium is
typical respiratory
lying on basal lamina.

The lamina propria contains =

submucosa displays
_______ & _______ glands.
elastic fibers.

serous glands
mucus glands
The framework of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi consists of a stack of =
C-shaped hyaline cartilages

each surrounded by a __________ layer blending with the perichondrium.
fibroelastic

In the trachea and primary bronchi, the open ends of the cartilage rings point posteriorly to the esophagus.
The lowest tracheal cartilage is the =
carinal cartilage.
carinal cartilage.
Trachea
Transv_______ _____ trachealis muscle attach to the inner ends of the cartilage.
erse fibers of the
Trachea
layers top to Bottom =
Epithelium
Lamina propria
{Submucosa
Seromucous glands}
Cartilage
Adventitia