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16 Cards in this Set

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What evidence do we have that land plants evolved from green algae?
Rosette-shaped cellulose-synthesizing complexes, peroxisome enzymes, structure of flagellated sperm, and formation of phragmoplast.
What is sporopollenin?
A layer of durable polymer in charophytes, that prevents exposed zygotes from drying out.
What are the derived traits of land plants?
Walled spores produced in sporangia, multicellular gametangia, apical meristems, and alteration of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos.
What is the cuticle?
The covering of the epidermis, which consists of polyester and wax polymers. Permanently exposed to air, land plants run a far greater risk of desiccation. The cuticle acts as waterproofing and helps prevent excess water loss.
What is vascular tissue?
Cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
What plants are nonvascular?
Liverworts, hornworts, and mosses.
What are bryophytes?
The informal name for nonvascular plants.
What is a grade?
a collection of organisms that share a common level of biological organization or adaptation.
What is a seed?
an embryo packaged with a supply of nutrients inside a protective coat.
What two groups can seed plants be divided into?
Angiosperms and gymnosperms.
What are gymnosperms?
"Naked seeds" plants because their seeds are not enclosed in chambers.
What are angiosperms?
A huge clade consisting of all flowering plants. Their seeds develop inside chambers called ovaries, which originate within flowers and mature into fruits.
What are rhizoids?
They anchor gametophytes. They are long, tubular single cells or filaments of cells. Unlike roots, they are not composed of tissues.
What are tracheids?
Tube-shaped cells that carry water and minerals up from roots.
What is Xylem?
It conducts most of the water and minerals.
What are roots?
Are organs that absorb water and nutrients from the soil. Roots also anchor vascular plants, hence allowing the shoot system to grow taller.