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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name an enzyme involved in DNA replication.

DNA Helicase.

Describe the roles of messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) in proteinsynthesis.

Messenger RNA

1. mRNA as a copy of the geneticcode / DNA

2. of the protein (being synthesized)

3. moves out of the nucleus / to ribosomes

4. idea that it {acts as a template / has theinstructions} for translation

Transfer RNA

1. Reference to translation

2. Binds to an amino acid / takes the amino acidto the {ribosome / mRNA}

3. reference to tRNA being specific to aminoacid 4. holds the amino acid in place

Describe how mRNA is synthesised.

1. Reference to transcription

2. DNA unwinds / strands separate

3. (RNA) (mono)nucleotides line up against/ attach to one (DNA) strand /template

4. Complementary base pairing(between DNA and (mono)nucleotides)

5. (Mono)nucleotides joiningtogether / formation of phosphodiesterbonds

6. Condensation reaction

7. Named enzymesinvolved

8. mRNA detaches (from DNA)

Role of mRNA during protein synthesis

1. mRNA is a copy of template DNA strand.

2. mRNA codes for specific amino acids.

3. mRNA is taken in the cytoplasm.

4. Used in translation.

5. Binds to ribosome.

Role of tRNA during protein synthesis.

1. tRNA attaches to an amino acid.

2. tRNA binds to mRNA

3. Two tRNA brings amino acids together for peptide bonds to be formed.

Describe how a molecule of mRNA is made during transcription.

1. DNA unwinds.

2. RNA mono nucleotides line up against template strand.

3. Complementary base pairing between DNA and mono nucleotides.

4. Formation of phosphodiester bonds.

5. Condensation reaction.

6. Named enzyme involved.

7. mRNA detaches from the DNA.

Describe two ways in which thestructure of a tRNA molecule differs from the structure of a mRNA molecule.

1. tRNA is folded (andmRNA is {straight /unfolded})

2. tRNA has hydrogenbonds (holding thestructure together)(but the mRNA doesnot).

3. tRNA has ananticodon (butmRNA has codons.

4. tRNA has an aminoacid binding site.

5. tRNA is a fixed size but mRNA is not / lengthdepends on size ofgene.

Explain the nature of the genetic code.

1. triplet code / 3 bases to each code

2. reference to adenine, thymine,guanine and cytosine

3. idea that each triplet of bases codesfor one amino acid

4. idea that the code is not overlapping

5. idea that code is universal

6. idea that code is degenerate

Describe the process of DNA replication.

1. semi-conservativereplication

2. DNA (molecule / strands) {unwinds/ separate

3. (mono)nucleotides line up along(both) strands /

4. reference to complementary pairingbetween bases

5. reference to hydrogen bondsformed (between bases)

6. reference to formation ofphospho(di)ester bonds (betweenadjacent mononucleotides) ;7. to condensation reaction

8. name of an enzyme involved inDNA replication

Describe the process of protein synthesis that occurs in the cytoplasm.

1. ribosome (attaches to mRNA)

2. idea that tRNA carries an amino acid

3. idea of {anticodon codon interaction / complementarybase pairing } between tRNA and mRNA

4. formation of hydrogen bonds (between the tRNA andmRNA)

5. reference to peptide bond (between amino acids)

6. (peptide bond) formed by a condensation reaction

7. idea that tRNA released from {mRNA / ribosome}

8. idea that ribosome {attaches to / detaches from / eq}{sequence / eq} on mRNA

Describe the structure of a mononucleotide found in RNA

1. contains {Ribose / 5C sugar / pentose} ANDphosphate.

2. reference to (nitrogenous) base / adenine / guanine /cytosine / uracil /

Difference between RNA and DNA


1. Single strand

2. Ribose sugar

3. Uracil replaces T


1. Double strand

2 Deoxyribose sugar