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49 Cards in this Set

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the use of a plasma membrane cariier protein tomove molecules or ion from a region of lower concentraition to a higher concentraion;oppposes equilibrium and requires NRG
active transport
organic molecule made of an amino group and acid group; covalently bonds to produce peptide molecules
amino acid
Mitotic phase where daughter chromosome move toward poles of the spindle
anaphase
Nucleotide with 3 phosphate groups. ADP+P when broken down
ATP
organism that can capture NRG and synthesize organic molecules form inorganic nutrients
autotroph
splitting of parent cell into 2 daughter cells. Asexual reproduction for bacteria
binary fission
class of organic compounds includes: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
carbohydrates
continuous process where carbon circulates in air, water, and organisms of the biosphere
carbon cycle
smallest unit displays the properties of life
cell
repeating sequence in eukaryotes involving cell growth and nuclear division; G1,S,G2,M
cell cycle
structure surrounding plant, protisan, fungal, or bacterial cell; maintains cell's shape and rigidity
cell wall
Metabollic reactions using NRG from carbohydrate, fatty acid, or amino acid brokedown to produce ATP molecules
cellular respiration
green pigment absorbs solar NRG used for phostosynthesis
chlorophyll
membrane bounded organelle containing membranous thylakoids;where photosynthesis takes place
chloroplast
structure consisting DNA complexed with proteins that transmits gene form the previous generation of cells and organisms to the next generation
chromosome
3 base sequence in messanger RNA that causes the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein, or termination of a translation
codon
gradual change in chemical concentration from one point to another
concentration gradient
chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons
covalent bond
division of the cytoplasm following mitosis and meiosis
cytokinesis
contents of a cell between the nucleus (nucleoid) region of bacteria and the plasma membrane
cytoplasm
movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher to lower concentraion; requires no NRG and tends to lead toward equal disribution
diffusion
(2n) cell condition in which 2 of each type of chromosome are present
diploid
Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of neucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; genetic material of nearly all organisms
DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid)
allele that exerts its phenotypic effect in the heterozygote' masks the expression of recessive alleles
dominant
study of the the interactions of aganisms w/ other organisms and w/ the physical and chemical environment
ecology
passage of electrons along a series of membrane-bound electron carrier molecules from a higher to a lower NRG; NRG released is use for ATP synthesis
electron transport chain
process where substances are moved into the cell from the environment by phagocytosis (cellular eating) or pinocytosis (cellular drinking); includes receptor-mediated
endocytosis
organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds a reaction in cells due to its particular shape
enzyme
growth, particularly of a population, the increase occures in the same manner as a compound interest
exponential growth
passive transfer of a substance into or out of a cell along a concentration gradient by a process that requires a carrier
facilitated diffusion
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose resulting in a gain of 2 ATP and end in products such as alcohol and lactate
fermentation
model for plasma mebrane based on the changing location and pattern of protein molecules in a fluid phospholipid bilayer
fluid mosaic model
genes of an organism for a particular trait or traits ; designated by letters ex: BB, Aa
genotype
Anaerobic breakdown of glucose that results in a gain of ATP; end product is pyruvate
glycolysis
place where an organism lives and is able to survive and reproduce
habitat
(n) cell condition in which only one of each type of chromosome is present
haploid
processing unlike alleles for a particular trait
heterozygous
member of a pair of chromosomes that are alike and come together in synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division; a homologue
homologue chromosomes
possesssing 2 identical alleles for a particular trait
homozygous
weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slughtly negative atom of another molecule or between parts of the same molecule
hydrogen bond
supposition est. by reasoning after considerationof available evidence can be tested by obtaining more data, often by experimentation
hypothesis
stages of the cell cycle (G1,s,G2) during which growth and DNA synthesis occur when the nucleus is not actively dividing
interphase
chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one another by opposite charges
ionic bond
2 laws explaining NRG and its relationship and exchanges
1)law of conservation
2)NRG cannot be changed from one form to another w/o a loss of usable NRG
Laws of Thermodynamics
class of organic compunds that tends to be soluble in nonpolar solvents; includes fats and oils
lipid
membrane-bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes
lysosome
type of nuclear division that occcurs asa part of sexual reprodutction, in which the daughter cells reieive the haploid number of chromosomes in varied combinations
meiosis
mitotic phase during which chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate
metaphase
small molecule that is a subunit of a polymer-ex: glucose is a polymer of starch
monomer