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54 Cards in this Set

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Who invented the microscope in 1670?
Anton von Leeuenhoek (dutchman)
What is a cell?
The smallest biological unit that can be considered to be alive.
What are the three principles of cell theory?
1. all living things are composed of one or more cells
2. the cell is the smallest thing capable of life on its own
3. cells come from other cells
What is a scientific theory?
An accepted idea in science that is taken as "the truth until further notice"
To form new and better theories you do what?
set out to disprove or prove the current theory to be false
What type of organisms or cells have no nucleus or membrane bound organelles?
prokaryotic
What is the nucleus?
control center of the cell, contains the DNA
What type of cell has a nucleus and membrane bound organelles?
eukaryotic
What is an organelle?
a tiny, membrane-bound structure inside a cell that carries out a specific function for the cell (not always membrane-bound)
What is a plastid?
a plant cell organelle that contains pigments and is usually involved in food production or storage
What is a chromoplast?
a plastid that may contain pigmented molecules
What is a chloroplast?
an green organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll and is involved in food-processing process of photosynthesis
What is photosynthesis?
process in which plants make glucose from carbon dioxide gas using the photonic energy of light
What is a cell membrane or plasma membrane?
the outer limit of an animal cell
What is the protein-rich liquid interior content of a cell?
Cytoplasm
What are the rod-like strands of supporting proteins that help the cell maintain thir shape and are the internal support system of the cell?
cytoskeleton
What is the central vacuole?
central water-filled organelle unique to plants (maintains water pressure)
What is it called when the chloroplasts/organelles are seen moving around in the cell circulating around the central vacuole?
cytoplasmic streaming
What is the cell wall?
The outer limit of a plant cell, rigid, made of cellulose
What is cellulose?
roughage or dietary fibre
What does a qualitative test show?
it tells whether a substance is present or not
What test do you run if you are trying to determine the amount of a substance present?
quantitative test
What is Applied Science?
They have a goal, most research is this type i.e. medical and pharmaceutical
What is the research for the sake of research alone (done with grants)?
Pure Science
What is theoretical science?
Science of ideas - done in your head or on computers
Name four biological molecules common to all living things:
1) Carbohydrates
2) Proteins
3) Lipids
4) Nucleic acids
What is monomer?
General term for a molecule made up of similar small repeating units.
Biomolecule made of repeating sugar units or monomers (Carbohydrates, proteins, & nucleic acids)
polymers
What is a saccharide?
sugar
Look at an animal cell and a plant cell side by side...
they are similar in many ways.
What does a plant cell have that a animal cell do not have?
Cell wall, central vacuole, and chloroplasts
Compare the three types of fatty acids: Saturated, Mono-unsaturated, Poly-unsaturated
Saturated acid has no double bonds. Mono-unsaturated fatty acid has one double bond. (cis if h on same side) Poly-unsaturated fatty acid has two or more double bonds. (trans if h on different sides) (cis if h on same side)
This structure is the basic molecular structure for which class of lipids:
Steroid, the basis of a cholesterol molecule
Name items 1-5: Upper Epidermis, Mesophyll cells, Lower Epidermis, Stomata, Guard Cell
1) Upper Epidermis
2) Lower Epidermis
3) Stomata
4) Guard Cells
5) Mesophyll Cells
A functional protein, it makes or breaks a chemical bond
enzyme
Scientific name for hydrophobic molecules
Lipid
kind of lipid that biological membranes are made of
phospholipid
monomer unit of nucleic acid
nucleotide
the sum of all chemical reactions in your body
metabolism
term used to describe the shape of DNA
double helix
a fat that contains no double bonds
saturated fat
biomolecule of repeating amino acid units
protein
term that refers to the shape of a molecule
conformation
examples of dna and rna
nucleic acids
simple carb made of one sugar molecule
monosaccharides
simple carb made of two sugar molecules
disaccharides
single repeating units of polymer
monomer
the monomers that proteins are made of
amino acids
a fat that contains multiple double bonds
polyunsaturated fat
a molecule with 4 carbon rings like cholesteral
steroid
the monomeric form of a carbohydrate
sugar
a glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids chemically bonded to it
triglyceride
carbs composed of many sugar subunits (monomers)
polymer
describes a fatty acid that has the maximum number of hydrogens attached (all single bonds)
saturated fatty acid