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15 Cards in this Set

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chromosome
threadlike strand of DNA consisting of chromatin, which carries genes and functions in the transmission of hereditary information; located in cell nucleus; humans have 23 pairs (22 + 1 pair of sex chromosomes)
chromatin
substance of a cell nucleus, consisting of DNA, RNA, and various proteins, that forms chromosomes during cell division
gene
A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that occupies a specific location on a chromosome and determines a particular characteristic in an organism
zygote
cell formed by the gametes (the 2 reproductive cells)
gametes
sex cells or reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
allele
any of several forms of a gene, that are responsible for hereditary variation;
homozygous
aired alleles (one on each of two paired chromosomes) that are the same
heterozygous
paired alleles (one on each of two paired chromosomes) that are different; one allele is usually dominant, and the other recessive
dominant allele
an allele that produces the same phenotype whether its paired allele is identical or different; relating to the form of a gene that expresses a trait
recessive allele
an allele that does not produce a characteristic effect when present with a dominant allele
genetics
the science of heredity
Mendel
Austrian botanist and founder of the science of genetics; discovered the principle of the inheritance of characteristics through the combination of genes from parent cells
DNA
nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication and synthesis of RNA; replicates during cell division; each parent contributes one of the two strands in the DNA of the offspring; governs production of proteins and other molecules necessary for cell division
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism; the sum total of genes transmitted from parent to offspring
phenotype
the observance of a specific trait based on genetic and environmental influences