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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Two gametes (sex cells) combine during
sexual reproduction
What is one function of MITOSIS?
to equally divide replicated chromosomes into daughter cells
Sperm cells of the Russian dwarf hamster contain 14 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are found in a normal body cell of the Russian dwarf hamster?
28
How does the number of chromosomes in a human liver cell compare to the number of chromosomes in a human brain cell?
The number of chromosomes in both cells is equal.
A cell with 20 chromosomes undergoes MITOSIS. What is the end result?
2 daughter cells will be created and each daughter cell will have 20 chromosomes.
What is one function of MEIOSIS?
to create gametes for reproduction
One of the first people to study patterns of heredity scientifically was
Gregor Mendel
The allele for green pod color (G) is dominant over the allele for yellow pod color (g). What is the genotype for a plant with yellow pods?
gg
An organism with two different alleles for a single trait is ____ for that trait.
heterozygous
Assume that in humans, brown eyes (B) is dominant over blue eyes (b). The mother’s genotype is bb and the father’s is Bb. What are the predicted frequencies of eye color of the children of these parents?
1/2 brown eyes and 1/2 blue eyes
Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease that causes serious respiratory problems. Brad and Janet are healthy adults with three children. Two of the children appear to be healthy and one child has cystic fibrosis. The normal allele is represented as C. The disease-causing allele is represented as c. What is Brad’s genotype? What is Janet’s genotype?
Brad = Cc; Janet = Cc
If an organism has two identical alleles for a single trait, for that trait the organism is considered
homozygous
In humans the gene for polydactyly (having extra fingers or toes) is dominant over the gene for the normal number of digits. If parents who are both homozygous dominant for polydactyly have four children, how many of these children would most likely have extra fingers or toes?
4
Two parents are both heterozygous for a single-gene recessive genetic trait. This means that their offspring:
have a 25% chance of expressing the trait
In a certain species of bird, the allele for red feathers (R) is dominant over the allele for green feathers (r). When a heterozygous red-feathered bird is mated with a green-feathered bird, what percentage of the offspring is likely to possess the red feather trait?
50%
A cross between two plants that have pink flowers produced offspring that have red, pink, or white flowers. Which is the most likely explanation for these results?
The allele for flower color shows incomplete dominance.
The offspring of sexual reproduction:
receives half of its genetic material from each parent.
The offspring of asexual reproduction:
receives all of its genetic material from one parent.
The typical sex chromosomes of a male human are
XY
Using special enzymes, scientists have been able to isolate the gene that controls the production of Protein A from one type of bacteria and insert the gene into another type of bacteria that does not normally produce Protein A. These bacteria then produce Protein A. What is the name of this technique?
genetic modification
What complementary DNA sequence binds to this DNA sequence: A – G – T – A – C ?
T – C – A – T – G
A DNA molecule is found to contain 40% of the nitrogenous base thymine (T). What percentage of nitrogenous base adenine (A) does this molecule contain?
40%
What part of the nucleic acid carries the genetic information?
the nitrogen bases
In the cells of most organisms, DNA is contained in the
nucleus
Put the following cellular components in order of size from smallest to largest:
nucleus, chromosome, cell, nucleotide, gene
nucleotide, gene, chromosome, nucleus, cell
The nitrogen bases found in DNA are represented by the letters
A, T, G, and C
If a portion of a messenger RNA molecule contains the codon A-A-U, the corresponding transfer RNA base anticodon sequence is
U-U-A