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56 Cards in this Set

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Adenine
One of the purine bases found in nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA (and RNA)
Base Pairs
Any of the pairs formed between complementary bases and in the two nucleotide chains of DNA such as A-T and C-G; can also refer to any complementary pairs formed between a DNA chain and an RNA chain
Base Sequence
Specific order of nucleotides (bases) along a DNA chain and an RNA chain
Chargaff's Rule
Regularity observed by Chargaff that in DNA, the relative proportions of A and T are equal and similarly, the proportion of C is equal to that of G
Chromosomes
Thread-like structures composed of DNA and protein, and visible in cells during mitosis and meiosis
Coding Region
Part of a gene that contains coded information for making a polypeptide chain
Comparative Genomics
Comparative study of the genomes of several species
Cytosine
One of the pyrimidine bases found in he nucleotides that are building blocks of DNA (and RNA)
D-Loop
Region of mtDNA, also known as the control region, or the hyper-variable region
Decoded
Refers to the translation of genetic information held in DNA into amino acids
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Nucleic acid containing the four bases - adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine - which forms the major component of chromosomes and contains coded genetic information
Deoxyribose
Five-carbon sugar that forms one component of the nucleotides found in DNA
Dihybrid
Refers to a cross in which alleles of two different genes are involved
Dissociation
Separation of a double-stranded DNA molecule into its single strands, which occurs when the hydrogen bonds stabilising the two strands are broken, such as by heating
DNA Sequences
Instruments that automate the identification of the order or sequence of bases along a DNA strand
Double Helix
Three-dimensional structure of DNA consisting of two nucleotide chains coiled in a regular manner
Encoded
Refers to the holding of genetic information in DNA in coded form as a base sequence
Exon
Part of the coding region of a gene that is both transcribed and translated
Flanking Regions
Regions located either downstream or upstream of the coding region of a gene
Frameshift
Type of mutation in which as a result of insertion or deletion of a base, all codons from that point are affected
Gene
Inherited instruction carried on a chromosome; specific segment of DNA carrying an instruction encoded in its base sequence for a specific protein product
Gene Duplication
Process whereby a second copy of the DNA sequence of a gene appears in a genome
Gene Sequence
Order of bases in a DNA segment
Gene Sequencing
Identification of the order or sequence of bases along the DNA of a specific gene
Genetic Code
Representation of genetic information through a non-overlapping series of groups of three bases (triplets) in a DNA template chain
Genome
Sum total of the genes present in a cell or an organism
Genomics
Study of the entire genetic make-up or genome of a species
Germline Mutation
Change that occurs in the DNA of a gamete, or cell that can give rise to a gamete, and can be transmitted to the next generation
Guanine
One of the purine bases present in the nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA (and RNA)
Horizontal Gene Transfer
Acquisition of a new gene by a species as a result of transfer from another species
Human Genome Project
International project directed at the identification of the sequence of the more than three billion bases in the human genome
Hybridisation
Pairing between single-stranded complementary DNA segments from organisms from the same or even different species
Hydrogen Bonds
Weak, non-covalent bonds that form between complementary nucleotides in different DNA strands; hydrogen bonds are responsible for stabilising the structure of the DNA double helix
Induced Mutation
Change in DNA brought about by the application of a known mutagen
Introns
Part of the coding region of a gene that are transcribed but not translated
Mendel's Factors
Term that identifies the name given by Gregor Mendel to entities in his postulated model of inheritance in peas
Monohybrid
Refers to a cross in which alleles at only one gene are involved
Mutation Agents
Chemical or physical agents that can cause mutation in DNA
Mutation
Change in the genetic material
Nucleic Acids
Compounds such as DNA or RNA, built from nucleotide sub-units
Nucleotide Sequence
In DNA refers to the specific order of nucleotides along part of or all of a DNA molecule, also known as a base sequence
Nucleotides
Basic building blocks or sub-units of DNA and RNA and consisting of a phosphate group, a base and a sugar; the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose and that in RNA is ribose
Promoters
Part of the upstream flanking region of a gene containing base sequences that control the activity of that gene
Proteomics
The study of the proteome, the complete array of proteins produced by an organism
Purines
Class of nitrogen containing bases, including adenine and guanine
Pyrimidines
Class of nitrogen containing bases, including thymine and cytosine
Re-association
Pairing again of single strands of DNA during cooling after the two strands of a DNA double helix have been dissociated by heating
Recessive
Refers to a trait that is not expressed but remains hidden in a heterozygous organism
Retroviruses
Viruses whose genetic materials is RNA; the RNA is changed into a molecule of DNA that is inserted into a host's DNA when the retrovirus enters the host cell
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
Genetic differences between individuals resulting from single base changes in their DNA sequence
Somatic Mutation
Change in the genetic material (DNA) that occurs in a body cell and cannot be transmitted to the next generation
TATA Box
Short base sequence consistently found in the upstream flanking region of the coding region of genes of many different species
Template Strand
Part of one strand of a DNA double helix that contains the coded information of a particular gene; sometimes called the sense strand
Thymine
One of the pyrimidine bases found in nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA (and RNA)
Transforming Factor
Substance isolated by Oswald Avery that had the ability to change the genetic character of bacteria and was later identified as being DNA
Triplet Code
Identifies that the genetic code consists of triplets or three-base sequences