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57 Cards in this Set

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The archaea which are found living in extremely hot acidic environments such as hot springs, geysers, thermal vents and around volcanoes are known as
thermoacidophiles
Prokaryotes reproduce by
Binary Fission
The innermost portion of a virus' structure is made up of ______.
A. either DNA or RNA.
B. both DNA and RNA.
C. a protein capsid.
D. spikes.
A. either DNA or RNA
The primary source of genetic variability in prokaryotes is
Mutations
True or False.
A facultative anaerobe is an organism that can metabolize effectively in the presence or absence of oxygen.
True
_____ have a number of mechanisms to survive in environments that are high in salt
Halophiles
Viruses always have at least _____.
A. a nucleus
B. a cell wall
C. an inner core of nucleic acid
D. None of these
C. an inner core of nucleic acid.
What is the correct sequence of events in the lytic cycle of a bacteriophage infection?
Attachment, Viral DNA penetration, Biosynthesis, Maturation and Rele
Some, but not all, virus capsids are surrounded by _________.
A. a membranous envelope
B. both DNA and RNA
C. either DNA or RNA
D. a protein capsid
E. a protein spore coat
A. a membranous envelope.
Which of the following is a mismatch?

A. thermophiles – live in extremely cold temperatures.
B. methanogens – prefer anaerobic environments
C. halophiles – live in high salt environments
D. thermoacidophiles - live in high temperatures and acidic environments
A. thermophiles – live in extremely cold temperatures.
Archaea and eukarya _____.

A. initiate transcription in the same manner
B. have similar types of RNA
C. share some of the same ribosomal proteins not found in bacteria
D. All of these
D. All of these.
Which of the following is not characteristic of a prokaryote?

A. cell wall
B. DNA
C. nucleus
D. plasma membrane
C. nucleus
Which of these is the best description of a virus?

A. a noncellular living organism
B. one of the smallest bacteria known
C. a cell at the boundary between living and nonliving things
D. chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell
D. chemical complexes of RNA or DNA protected by protein shell
Which of the following characterize prions?

A. Prions are proteinaceous infectious particles.
B. Prions cause TSEs, transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (mad cow disease).
D. Prions are misshapen proteins that may interact with a normal prion protein to change its shape.
E. All of the choices are correct.
F. A and B only.
E. All of the choices are correct
Which of these diseases could NOT be treated with antibiotics?

A. chlamydia
B. plague
C. influenza
D. scarlet fever
C. influenza
Endospores _____.

A. are a means of reproduction
B. can survive for hundreds of years
C. cannot be killed
D. All of these
D. All of these
Alveolate
A group of protists- includes unicellular dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, and ciliates.
Alveoli support plasma membrane.
Amboebozoan
Supergroup of eukaryotes that includes amoebas and slime molds.
Characterized by lobe-shaped pseudopodia.
Amoeboid
Cell that moves and engulfs debris with pseudopods.
Apicomplexan
Parasitic protozoans
Brown Algae
Marine photosynthetic protist.
Cellular Slime Mold
Free living amoeboid cells.
Feed on bacteria and years by phagocytosis.
Forms a plasmodium that produces spores.
Diatom
Golden-brown alga with a cell wall in two parts.
Dinoflagellate
Photosynthetic unicellular protist with two flagella- one whiplash
Green Algae
Photosynthetic protist. Contains chlorophylls a and b.
Plasmodial Slime Mold
Free living mass of cytoplasm that moves by pseudopods. Reproduces by spore formation.
Protist
Eukaryotic organism.
Generally microscopic complex singe cell.
Protozoan
Heterotrophic, unicellular protist.
Moves by flagella, cilia, or pseudopodia.
Red Algae
Marine photosynthetic protists.
Water Mold
Cell walls made of cellulose, usually decomposers, but some are parasites of aquatic or terrestrial organisms.
Club Fungi
Fungi that produces spores in club shaped basidia within a fruiting body.
-Mushrooms
-Shelf Fungi
-Puffballs
Fruiting Body
Spore producing and spore disseminating structure found in club and sac fungi.
Fungus
Saprotrophic decomposer- body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium.
Lichen
Symbiotic relationship b/t certain fungi and algae
Mold
Various fungi who body consists of a mass of hyphae that grow on and receive nourishment from organic matter such as food.
Mycorrhizae
Mutualistic relationship between fungal hyphae and roots of vascular plants.
Sac Fungi
Fungi that produce spores in fingerlike sacs called asci within a fruiting body.
-Morels
-Truffles
-Yeasts
-Molds
Yeast
Unicellular fungus that has a single nucleus and reproduces asexually by budding or fission, or sexually through spore formation.
Alternation of generations lift cycle
Life cycle, typical of land plants, in which a diploid sporophyte alternates with a haploid gametophyte.
Angiosperm
Flowering land plant- the seeds are borne within a fruit.
Conifer
Member of a group of cone bearing gymnosperm land plants that includes pine, cedar, and spruce trees.
Fern
Land plants that have large fronds
Sexual life cycle:
independent gametophyte produces flagellated sperm
the vascular sporophyte produces windblown spores
Gametophyte
Haploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant.
Produces gametes that unite to form a diploid zygote.
Gymnosperm
Type of woody seed plant in which the seeds are not enclosed by fruit and are usually in borne in cones.
Heterosporous
Seed plant that produces two types of spores- microspores and megaspores.
Horsetail
Seedless vascular plant having only one genus in existence today.
Characterized by:
-Rhizomes
-Strobili
-Tough, rigid stems
Liverwort
Bryophyte with a lobed or leafy gametophyte and a sporophyte composed of a stalk and capsule.
Megaspore
One of the two spores produced by seed plants.
Develops into a female gametophyte (embryo sac)
Microspore
One of the two spores produced by seed plants.
Develops into a male gametophyte (pollen grain)
Moss
Type of bryophyte.
Nonvascular Plant
Bryophytes, such as mosses and liverworts, that have no vascular tissue.
Rhizoid
Rootlike hair that anchors a plant and absorbs minerals and water from the soil.
Rhizome
Rootlike underground stem.
Seed
Mature ovule that contains an embryo, with stored food and a protective coat.
Seedless vascular plant
Collective name for club mosses and ferns. Characterized by windblown spores.
Sporangia
Structure that produces spores.
Sporophyte
Diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant.
Produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.