Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Word and symbol equation for photosynthesis
carbon dioxide + water = oxygen + glucose
6CO(2) + 6H(2)O = 6O(2) + C(6)H(12)O(6)
What 3 things does a leaf need to produce starch
carbon dioxide, light and chlorophyll
Describe a test for the need of a leaf to have carbon dioxide in order to produce starch
carbon dioxide: seal a leaf in a jar and leave some soda lime. The soda lime will absorb the carbon dioxide in the air, and after a while when you take the leaf out it wont have produced any starch.
Describe a test for the need of light for a leaf to have carbon dioxide in order to produce starch
light: place a leaf in a dark cupboard and it will not produce an starch.
Describe a test for the need of chlorophyll for a leaf to have carbon dioxide in order to produce starch
chlorophyll: get a leaf which has white and green areas, and after the starch test, only the green areas will have produced starch (unfair test)
factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and temperature
function and place of the cuticle
the cuticle is the thin layer of waxy material on the outside of the leaf which protects the epidermis layers. It reduces water loss by evaporation and acts as a barrier to disease-causing microorganisms
what is in the lower epidermis layer
many pores called stomata which allow carbon dioxide to diffuse in, and oxygen and water vapour to diffuse out. They are formed as a gap between two guard cells which can alter their shape to open/close the stoma
what two layers are in the mesophyll (middle)
palisade cells (upper) and spongy cells (lower)
what happens in the palisade layer
there are elongated cells containing hundreds of chloroplasts which is the main sight for photosynthesis. This is helped by the fact they are near the source of light and the upper epidermis is relatively transparent.
what happens in the spongy layer
these cells are rounder and loosely packed with air spaces between them. Photosynthesis also takes place here but this is the main gas exchange surface of the leaf.
describe the starch test
1. kill the leaf in boiling water (to stop chemical reactions)
2. remove colour in boiling ethanol
3. wash with cold water (to soften it)
4. add iodine solution (starch areas will be blue-black)
can plants respire and photosynthesise at night
they can respire but not photosynthesise and therefore carbon dioxide levels will be higher at night, while oxygen levels will be higher at day
describe a test for how much carbon dioxide is in the air
you put leaves in the light, dark, dim light and set up a control without a leaf. You then add hydrocarbonate indicator solution and observe the colour the leaf turns.
what colour will hyrdocarbonate indicator solution go in high concentrations of carbon dioxide, normal and low
yellow in high, orange in normal and purple in low
what is the use and deficiency symptom of nitrate in plants
it is used for making amino acids, proteins, chlorophyll and DNA (need 2 to get right) and without it there is stunted growth of plant and the older leaves turn yellow
what is the use and deficiency symptom of magnesium ions in plants
it is used as part of a chlorophyll molecule and the deficiency symptom is that the leaves turn yellow