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11 Cards in this Set

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What is the formula for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O + light --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
What captures light energy?
Chloroplast pigments such as chlorophyll.
What happens in the light dependent reaction?
An electric flow is created by light on chlorophyll. This causes water to split into protons, electrons and oxygen.
•Takes place in the thylakoid membranes.
What happens in the light independent reaction?
The protons from the light dependent reaction are used to reduce CO2 and produce sugars and other organic molecules.
•Takes place in the stroma.
What is the grana?
Stacks of disc like structures called thylakoids where the light dependent stage of photosynthesis takes place.
What is the stroma?
Fluid filled matrix where light independent stage of photosynthesis takes place.
What is oxidation?
When a substance combines with oxygen.
What is reduction?
When one substance gains oxygen from another.
How is ATP made in light dependent reaction?
-Chlorophyll absorbs light energy.
-Energy level of a pair of electrons is boosted (excited).
-Electrons leave the molecule, taken up by electron carrier. (Chlorophyll molecule is oxidised and carrier is reduced)

-Electrons then passed along electron carriers in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions.
-Electrons lose energy as they go down the chain.
-Energy is used to combine Pi molecule with ADP to make ATP.
What is photolysis of water?
-Electrons must be replaced after they leave the chlorophyll.
-Water is split by light energy to make hydrogen ions.
2H2O --> 4H+ + 4e- + O2

-Hydrogen ions taken by NADP and is reduced.
-Reduced NADP enters light independent reaction.
What is the Calvin cycle? (Light Independent reaction)
1. CO2 diffuses through stomata, plasma membrane, cytoplasm and chloroplast to get into the stroma of the chloroplast.

2. CO2 combines with RuBP using an enzyme.

3. Produces 2xG3P.

4. ATP and NADP from light dependent reaction are used to reduce 2xG3P to 2xTP.

5. NADP is reformed and goes to light dependent reaction to be reduced again.

6. 5/6 TP regenerated to RuBP.