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53 Cards in this Set

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1. Egg shell


2. Albumen


3. Chorion


4. Allantois


5. Yolk


6. Yolk sac


7. Amnion


8. Amniotic cavity


9. Embryo

Benefits of placenta

Greater protection


Greater mobility


Favors evolution of few large offspring



How does the placenta form?

Forms from embryonic/maternal tissues



Who are the amniotes?

Reptiles


Mammals

Temporal Feresteral

Openings in skull behind eyes

Diapsid vs. Syapsid vs. Anapsid

Diapsid: 2 openings in skull (most reptiles)


Synapsid: 1 opening in skull (humans)


Anapsid: 0 openings in skull (turtles)

Reptile Traits

Scales


Amniotic egg


Tetrapod


3-4 chambered


Flight (in birds)

Benefit of scales (scutes)

Horny scales composed of keratin


Used for waterproofing

Traits of Lepidosaurs

Replaceable overlapping scales


Limbs are reduced/lost


Autotomy


Hemipenis


Parthenogenesis

Autotomy

Self amputation of limbs (tail in lepidosaurs)

Hemipenis

Pair of retractable sex organs near tail

Parthenogenesis

Female cloning of egg that can be fertilized by polar bodies

Testudinia Traits

0 temporal fenesterae


Presence of shell


Terrestrial (tortoises) and aquatic (turtles)


No placental care

Shell parts in Testudinia

Dorsal: Plastron (underside of shell)


Ventral: Carapace (hard upper shell)

Crocodilia traits

Thick, non-overlapping scales


Laterally compressed tails


Oviparous


4 chambered heart

Differences in crocodilian snouts

Crocs: Narrow


Gator: Broad

Aves traits

Evolved flight


Feathers


Convergent evolution


Hollow bones


4 chambered heart


Bird lung connected to anterior and posterior sacs

Bird breathing step 1

Inhalation 1: Air fills posterior sacs


Exhalation 1: Air moves to lung, new air in posterior



Bird breathing step 2

Inhalation 2: Air from lung moves to anterior sac


Exhalation 2: Air leaves anterior sac and moves to lung



Endothermy

Generate heat via metabolism and retain it viause of fur/hair (ex. Birds, mammals)

Ectothermy

All other tetrapod animals in which temperature is comparable to ambient temperature

Temperature regulation increases...

Enzyme rates significantly

If cold...

Shivering response


Muscular activity produces heat


Vasoconstriction reduces heat loss

If hot...

Sweating uses heat to evaporate water


Vasolidation loses heat

How does body surface play an important role in thermoregulation?

Smaller body= a larger SA to volume ratio vs, large body

What do infants use to retain heat?

Infants use brown fat which has a higher amount of mitochondria

Mammary Gland

exocrine organ that produces nutrients for offspring


Increases maternal investment

Exocrine

Ducted gland releases secretory material into duct (salviary, sweat, etc.)


Endocrine

Ductless glands release secretory material into extracellular environment (bloodstream)

Monotreme traits

Platypus and 4 species of echidnia


Egg layers


Produce small eggs



Platypus traits

Beack has electro/mechno sensory structures used for foraging


Rear limbs contain venom glands (males only)

Marsupial

Pouched animals


Initially live bearing


Nourish embryos using placenta but born under developed



What happens after marsupial young are born?

After birth, offspring get in pouch (marsupium) or attach to mom and suckle to continue devlopment

Unique reproductive traits of Marsupials

Female: 2 uteri and 2 vagina with 3rd "psuedo" vagina


Male: 2 prong penis used only for copulation

Eutherian Mammal Traits

Placental viviparity using chorio-allontric placenta


Better developed embryos



Cons of eutherian placental mammals

Long gestation/Premature loss


Energetically expensive

Trends of eutherian mammal evolution

Amphibian lung- sac with folds


Reptile lung- complex with accessory air sacs


Mammalian lung- increased surface area by grape like clusters known as alveoli

Mammalisn circulation

Double pump system


4 chambered heart


Oxygenated blood

Primates trends

Opposable thumbs


Arboreal


Tails


Extensive parental care


Large brain to body size ratio


Color vision


Eyes face forward

Prosimians

Before monkeys


Lemurs, lorises


Small, arboreal

Anthropoids

Human like


Old world monkeys: africa and asia


New world monkeys: central and south america


Lesser apes: Gibbons


Great apes (hominids): gorilla, orangutan, chimps, bonobo, humans

Great Apes

Hand walkers- orangutan

Knuckle walkers- gorilla, bonobos, chimps


Bipedalism- humans

Benefits of bipedalism

Frees up hands


greater mobility


greater sensitivity of hands


greater field of view



Types of Hominins

Gracitie Australopithecines


Robust Australopithecines


Early Homo sp.


Recent Homo sp.

Gracitie Australopithecines

3-4 ft in height


Slender


Large jaw and teeth

Robust Australopithecines

~3-1.5 mYA


Large sagittal crest that attaches to jaw muscles


Large jaw met an evolutionary dead end

Early Homo sp.

Taller, more narrow face


Smaller jaw and teeth


Brain case increases in size


Coincides with first appearance of stone tools

Recent Homo sp.

1 mYA to present


Longer limbs


More streamlined body


Narrowing of face


Increased cranial capacity

Major trends in primate evolution

Increased height/overall body size


Reduction in jaw/tooth size


Increased cranium and brain size

Out of Africa Hypothesis

Homo sapiens evolved in Africa and dispersed inmultiple waves


Evidence of interbreeding between Neanderthalmales and H. sapiens females


Large, rounder body- low surface area/vol ratio

Differences in SA/V ratio

High SA/V ratio= adaptation for dissipating heat


Low SA/V ratio= adaptation for conserving heat


Sunlight differences in evolved humans

Greater sunlight= more UV light= selectivepressure that favors dark skin

Lower sunlight= lower, UV light= selective pressurethat favors light skin

Cultural selection

Lactosetolerance evolved in adult humans due to cattle/use of milk