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15 Cards in this Set

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What is interphase?
Interphase = phase where growth & DNA synthesis occurs
90% of cell cycle is spent in interphase (20 hours)
G0 = time when cells are at rest & not dividing (muscle & nerve cells)

Interphase has 3 stages:
G1 = Growth
S = DNA Synthesis (copy 2 meters of DNA per cell)
G2 = Protein synthesis
What happens at each of the mitotic phases?
M (Mitotic) Stage = phase where nucleus & cytoplasm divide
Approximately 2 hours long
Important in cell growth, development & repair

Mitotic Stage (1 hour) = cell division

mitosis = nuclear division

cytokinesis = cytoplasm division
What are the products of mitosis?
Nuclear Division and making copies of cells.
What is a diploid number?
2n
What is a haploid number?
1n
What do the numbers mean that are involved with diploids and haploids?
Diploid (2n) = 2 of each chromosome
Body (somatic) cells contain 2n = 46 chromosomes
Haploid (1n) =1 of each chromosome
Sperm and egg (gametes) have 1n = 23 chromosomes
What does ‘n’ refer to with diploids and haploids?
n = numbers of chomosomes.
What is the structure of a chromosome?
Chromosomes = condensed or tightly coiled chromatin

Chromatid = single strand of chromosome

Sister chromatids = 2 strands of genetically identical chromosomes
Attached at centromere
What two macromolecules make up chromosomes?
Proteins and Nucleic Acids
How do plant and animal cell division differ?
Mitosis: permits growth & repair

Meristematic plant tissue (root & shoot tips) retains ability to grow & divide throughout plant’s life

Plants DO NOT have centrioles or asters

Plants DO have centrosome & spindle

Cleavage furrows and Contactile rings happen only in animal cells because of the plant cell's cell wall.
What is binary fission?
Prokaryotic Cell Division = Binary Fission

Prokaryotes contain a single chromosome with only a few proteins (nucleoid)

DO NOT have spindle apparatus

Asexual Reproduction (yeast, Paramecium, Euglena)


Binary fission: division that produces 2 daughter cells genetically identical to the parent = clones

Division requires from 20 minutes (E. coli) to 24 hours to occur
What happens to a cell during binary fission?
1. Attachment of the chromosome to a special site indicates tha tthis bacterium is about to divide.

2. The cell is preparing for binary fission by enlarging its cell wall, plasma membrane, and overall volume.

3. DNA replication has produced two chromosomes. Cell wall and plasma membrane begin to grow inward.

4. As the cell elongates the chromosomes are pulled apart. Cytoplasm is being distributed evenly.

5. New cell wall and plasma membrane has divided the daughter cells.
What is apoptosis?
Apoptosis = Programmed Cell Death
What happens when cells fail to undergo apoptosis?
The cells might be considered cancerous.

Series of events that cause cell to self-destruct

Capsases = enzymes that trigger apoptosis

Mitosis increases apoptosis decreases the # of somatic (body) cells

Occurs during development (webbed toes fingers)
What are some of the characteristics of cancer cells and normal cells?
Cancer Cells:
Uncontrolled growth
No Contact Inhibition
Disorganized, multilayered
Nondifferential cells
Abnormal Nuclei
Do not undergo apoptosis

Normal Cells:
Controlled Growth
Contact Inhibition
One organized layer
Differential cells
Normal Nuclei
Undergo apoptosis

Cancer = uncontrolled cell growth that results from the mutation of genes regulating the cell cycle

Carcinogenesis = gradual development of cancer