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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
When electrons move closer to a more electronegative atom, what happens
Energy is released
The more electronegative atom is reduced
Why does the oxidation of organic compounds by molecular oxygen to produce CO2and water release free energy?
Electrons are being moved from atoms that have a lower affinity for electrons (such as C) to atoms with a higher affinity for electrons (such as O).
When a glucose molecule loses a hydrogen atom as the result of an oxidation-reduction reaction, the molecule becomes
oxidized
When a molecule of NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) gains a hydrogen atom (not a hydrogen ion) the molecule becomes
reduced
Which of the following statements describes NAD+?
NAD+is reduced to NADH during both glycolysis and the citric acid cycle
An electron loses potential energy when it
shifts to a more electronegative atom
Substrate-level phosphorylation accounts for approximately what percentage of the ATP formed during glycolysis
100%
During glycolysis, when glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, most of the energy of glucose is
retained in the pyruvate
In addition to ATP, what are the end products of glycolysis
NADH and pyruvate
Starting with one molecule of glucose, the "net" products of glycolysis are
2 NADH, 2 H+, 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, and 2 H2O
In glycolysis, for each molecule of glucose oxidized to pyruvate
2 molecules of ATP are used and 4 molecules of ATP are produced
A molecule that is phosphorylated
has an increased chemical reactivity; it is primed to do cellular work
How does pyruvate enter the mitochondrion?
active transport
During cellular respiration, acetyl CoA accumulates in which location
mitochondrial matrix
How many carbon atoms are fed into the citric acid cycle as a result of the oxidation of one molecule of pyruvate?
2
How many molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2) would be produced by five turns of the citric acid cycle?
10
Starting with citrate, which of the following combinations of products would result from three turns of the citric acid cycle?
3 ATP, 6 CO2, 9 NADH, and 3 FADH2
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is released during which of the following stages of cellular respiration?
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and the citric acid cycle
For each molecule of glucose that is metabolized by glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, what is the total number of NADH + FADH2 molecules produced
12
Cellular respiration harvests the most chemical energy from which of the following
chemiosmotic phosphorylation
Where are the proteins of the electron transport chain located
mitochondrial inner membrane
During aerobic respiration, which of the following directly donates electrons to the electron transport chain atthe lowest energy level?
FADH2
The primary role of oxygen in cellular respiration is to
act as an acceptor for electrons and hydrogen, forming water.
Inside an active mitochondrion, most electrons follow which pathway
citric acid cycle NADH electron transport chain oxygen
During oxidative phosphorylation, H2O is formed. Where does the oxygen for the synthesis of the water come from
molecular oxygen (O2)
Energy released by the electron transport chain isused to pump H+ ions into which location?
mitochondrial intermembrane space
The direct energy source that drives ATP synthesis during respiratory oxidative phosphorylation is
the difference in H+concentrations on opposite sides of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
When hydrogen ions are pumped from the mitochondrial matrix across the inner membrane and into the intermembrane space, the result is the
creation of a proton gradient
It is possible to prepare vesicles from portions of the inner membrane of the mitochondrial components. Which one of the following processes could still be carried on by this isolated inner membrane
oxidative phosphorylation
Each time a molecule of glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized via aerobic respiration, how many oxygen molecules (O2) are required
6
Which of the following produces the most ATP when glucose (C6H12O6) is completely oxidized to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water?
oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
Approximately what percentage of the energy of glucose (C6H12O6) is transferred to storage in ATP as a result of the complete oxidation of glucose to CO2and water in cellular respiration?
40%
Which of the following couples chemiosmosis to energy storage
ATP synthase
Which of the following normally occurs whether or not oxygen (O2) is present?
glycolysis
Which of the following occurs in the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell?
glycolysis and fermentation
Which metabolic pathway is common to both cellular respiration and fermentation
glycolysis
The ATP made during fermentation is generated by which of the following
substrate-level phosphorylation
One function of both alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation is to
oxidize NADH to NAD+
Why is glycolysis considered to be one of the first metabolic pathways to have evolved?
It is found in the cytosol, does not involve oxygen, and is present in most organisms.
Muscle cells, when an individual is exercising heavily and when the muscle becomes oxygen deprived, convert pyruvate to lactate. What happens to the lactate in skeletal muscle cells
it is taken to the liver and converted back to pyruvate
What is the purpose of beta oxidation in respiration?
breakdown of fatty acids
Where do the catabolic products of fatty acid breakdown enter into the citric acid cycle?
acetyl CoA
Which metabolic pathway is common to both fermentation and cellular respiration of a glucose molecule?
glycolysis
In mitochondria, exergonic redox reactions
provide the energy that establishes the proton gradient
When electrons flow along the electron transport chains of mitochondria, which of the following changes occurs?
The pH of the matrix increases
Cells do not catabolize carbon dioxide because
CO2 is already completely oxidized
Which of the following is a true distinction between fermentation and cellular respiration?
NADH is oxidized by the electron transport chain in respiration only
What is the term for metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules?
catabolic pathways