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84 Cards in this Set

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Describe the features of Kingdom Plantae
- eukaryotic
- multicellular
- autotrophic (photosynthetic)
Plants are believed to be descended from an ancestral subgroup of green algae, called?
Charophyta
What are plant's cell wall made of?
pectin and cellulose
What happens to the excess energy of plants?
stored as starch
Similarities between plants and green alagae
- cell wall made of pectin and cellulose
- excess energy strored as starch
- peroxisome enzymes
- formation of cell wall via mitosis
- formation of phragmoplast
- they both have chlorophyll A and B plus carotenoids
- have alternation of generation
- structure of flagellated sperm
Plants have that charophyta does not
- waxy cuticle
- stomates
- have true tissue (leaves, roots, etc.)
- have multicellular sex organs
- have well defined alteration of generations
- the zygote is maintained in maternal tissue until developed
- walled spors produced in sporangia
- Apical meristems
Problems moving to a terrestrial environment
5 impotant things
1. What is the solution for plants dessication (drying out)?
Waxy cuticles and stomates
2. How do plants transport gametes?
- spores
- pollen
3. What are plant's support against gravity?
- cellulose and lignin
4. Gas exchange can only be done across a wet surface. How was this resolved?
recessed wet stomates
5. How do plants transport Nutrients and water within them?
xylem and phloem
Describe the key evolutionary branch points of plants.
- ancestral green alagae (charophyte)
- Evolution of protected embryo (Hepatophyta)
- evolution of cuticle and stomata (Bryophyta)
- evolution of vascular tissue, root and shoot stem (Lycophyta and Pterophyta)
- Evolution of seeds (Gingkophyta, Cycadophyta, Coniferophyta)
-Evolution of flowers and fruit (Anthophyta: monocots or dicots)
Characteristics of Bryophytes (hepatophyta, bryophyta)
e.g pogonotum ( a moss), liverworts
(NONVASCULAR)
- small plants
- some nonfunctional stomates and thin waxy cuticles
- require moisture for reproduction as sperm has to swim to the female
- gametophyte generation is dominant
- no vascular tissue present
- no true organs ( root, stem, leaves)
- tied to a moist, wet environments
seedless vascular plants
- Phylum Lycophyta: mosses, spike mosses, quilworts
- phylum Pterophyta: ferns, horsetails, and whisk ferns and their relatives
Primary components of a vascular plant
xylem and phloem
xylem
conducts most of the water and minerals ( dead cells)
phoem
consists of living cells and distributes:
-sugars, amino acids, and other organic products
Water conducting cells are strengthened and provides structural support by?
lignin
What are vascular plants called?
Tracheophytes
Vascular plants (tracheophytes vs bryophytes)
- have xylem and phloem (vascular transport system)
- have true organs (root, stem and leaf)
- have well developed waxy cuticle
- stomates can be opened and closed
- sporophyte is the long lived generation
Leaves
- organs that increase the surface area of vascular plants
- captures more solar energy that is used for photosynthesis due to surface area
types pf leaves
- Microphylls
- Megaphylls
Microphylls
- leaves with a single vein
Megaphylls
- leaves with highly branched vascular system
Roots
- organ that anchor vascular plants
- enable vascular plants to absorb water and nutrients from the soil
- may have evolved from subterranean stems
Sporophylls and spore variation
- Sporophylls
- Sori
- Strobilli
Sporophylls
- modified leaves with sporangia (reproductive organ)
- both megaphyll and microphyll can be sporophylls
- bears reproductive structure (sporangia)
Sori
cluster of sporangia on the underside of sporophylls
Stobilli
cone like structure formed from groups of sporophylls
Types of sporophylls
- Microsporophyll
- Megasporophyll
Microsporophyll
Leaf that bears a sporangium manufacturing spores that will become male gametophytes (microspores)
Megasporophyll
Leaf bearing sporangium manufacturing spores that will become female gametophytes ( megaspores)
Seedless Tracheophytes (vascular plants)
- Lycophyta
- Pterophyta
Lycophyta (club mosses)
- large lycophytes are extinct
- only the smaller ones are extant (living)
- dominant in the carbonifereous period (380 million years ago)
- spirally arranged leaves
- bears reproductive structure called strobilli
Pterophyta
- usually small in size
- can have underground stem (rhizome)
- leafy frond-ferns
Evolution of seed
- seed develops from the whole ovule
- seed is a sporophyte embryo, with food supply, packaged in a protective coat
Advantage of seeds over spores
- may remain dormant for days to years, until conditions are favorable for germination
- may be transported long distances by wind or animal
seed of a gymnosperm
Gymnosperms (seed plants) (naked seeds- not enclosed by ovaries)
- Ginkgophyta
-Cycadophyta
-Gnetophyta
-Coniferophyta
gymnosperms
- their seeds lack protective enclosure or fruitor ovary with endosperm
- most likely evolved earlier than flowering plants
Cycadophyta (cycads)
- palm-like plants, abundant in tropical and subtropical regions
- can be up to 18 metres in height
- produce cone-like reproductive structures at the top of the plant
- pollen and seed cones are on different plants (male and female plants)
Ginkgophyta
- fan shaped leaves
- deciduos (leaves fall off in fall) unlike other gymnosperms
- have male and female reproductive structure on different trees
- has high air pollution tolerance
Gnetophyta
- comprises three genera
- vary in appearance, and some live in tropical areas and others in desert
Coniferophyta (conifers)
- most widespread gymnosperms
- evergreen and bears reproductive structures called CONES
- probably the talles and oldest living organisms
- leaves maybe needle like or scaly
- fertilisation and maturation is long
Examples of coniferophytes
- cedar
- spruce
- Hemlock
- pine
- redwood
Angiosperm
- flower
- seeds containing endosperm
- produce fruits
- double fertilisation
Phylum Anthophyta ( flowering plants)
-most recently evolved group
- flowers may have evolved from shoots and leaves
- produce fruits from flower ovaries
- ovaries protect the seed
- seeds contain endosperm (food for the developing embryo)
- double fertilisation
- have the greatest number of species (280 000)
Classes of Anthopyta
- monocotyledonae
- dicotyledonae
Monocots
- single cotyledon (seed leaves)
- parallel leaf venation
- flower parts are found in 3s or multiples of 3s
- have fibrous roots
- does not have vascular cambium
Dicots
- have 2 cotyledon (seed leaves)
- net like veins in their leaves
- flower parts are found in 4s or 5s or multiples or 4s or 5s
- have a main tap root
- have vascular cambium
Support of the plant body
...
Three basic organs of plants
- roots, stems, leaves
- organized into a root system and a shoot system
- roots rely on sugar produced by photosynthesis
- shoots rely on water and minerals absorbed by the root system
Each plant organ has
- dermal, vascular and ground tissue
- these three categories froms a tissue system
In nonwoody plants, the demal tissue system consists of the
Epidermis
A waxy coating helps preven water loss from epidermis.
Cuticle
In woody plants, protective tissues called ______ replace the epidermis in older regions of stems and roots
Periderm
Outgrowth of the shoot epidermis that can help with insect defense
Trichomes
Vascular tissue system (xylem and phloem)
transports materials between roots and shoots
xylem (dead cells)
conveys water and minerals ONLY upward from the roots into shoots
Phloem
- transports nutrients from where they are made to where they are needed
- can go back and forth unlike xylem
Common types of plant cells
- Parenchyma (BIG cells)
- Collenchyma
- Sclerenchyma
- Water- conducting cells of the xylem
- Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem
Parenchyma cells (mature cells)
- thin and flexible primary walls
- does not have secondary wall
- least specialized
- perform the most metabolic function
- retain the ability to divide and differentiate
Collenchyma cells
- grouped in strands and help support young parts of the plant shoot
- thicker and uneven cell walls
- lack secondary cell wall
- provides flexible support without restraining growth
Sclerenchyma cells (dead cells)
- Have secondary cell walls
- specialized as support tissue
- have 2 types : sclereids ( short and irregular shape, thick cell walls) and Fibers (long and slender, arranged in threads)
Water conducting cells of the Xylem
- 2 types of water conducting cells: tracheids and vessel element (dead at maturity)
- Tracheids are found in the xylem of all vascular plants
- Vessel elements are common to most Angiosperms and a few gymnosperms
- Vessel elements align end to end to form long micropipes called vessels
Sugar conducting cells of the Phloem
-Sieve-tube elements: alive at functional maturity; lack organelles
- Sieve plates: porous end walls that allow fluid to flow between cells along the sieve tube
- each sieve tube elements has a COMPANION CELL whose nucleus and ribosomes serve both cells
Sieve tube picture
Intermediate growth
a plant can grow throughout its life
Determinate Growth
plant organs cease to grow at a certain size.( has a size limit)
Annuals
complete their life cycle in a year
Biennials
require two growing season ( 2x a year)
Perennials
live for many years
Meristems
perpetually embryonic tissue and allow for intermediate growth
Apical meristems
- located at the tips of roots and shoots
- elongates shoots and roots, a process called primary growth
Lateral meristems
add thickness to woody plants, a process called secondary growth
There are two lateral meristems
-Vascular cambium
-Cork cambium
Vascular Cambium
add layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem
Cork Cambium
- replaces epidermis with periderm, which is thicker and tougher
Primary Growth (lengthens roots and roots )
- produces the primary plant body
- parts of the root and shoot sysmtem produced by apical meristem
primary growth of roots
- the root tip is covered by a root cap
- root cap protects the apical meristem as the root pushes through the soil
Primary growth of roots produces...
Epidermis
ground tissue
vascular tissue
monocot and dicot stem
Primary growth of shoots
- a shoot apical meristem is a dome shaped mass of dividing cells at the shoot tip
- leaves develop from leaf primordia
- axillary buds develop from meristematic cells