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14 Cards in this Set

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non-essential aas

GAAAS


Glutamate


Aspartate


Alanine


Asparagine


Serine

conditionally essential aas

Good Cats Always Get Potty Trained


Glutamine


Cysteine


Arginine


Glycine


Proline


Tyrosine

precursor molecules that generate non-essential aas

3-phosphoglycerate (glycolysis)


pyruvate (glycolysis)


oxaloacetate (TCA cycle)


alpha-ketoglutarate (TCA cycle)

Alanine synthesis

1-step:


alanine aminotransferase



pyruvate --> alanine


Glu -> α-KG

Glutamate synthesis

1-step:


many aminotransferases



α-KG --> glutamate


L-AA -> α-keto acid

Aspartate synthesis

1-step:


aspartate aminotransferase



OAA --> aspartate


Glu -> α-KG

Tyrosine synthesis

1-step:


phenylalanine hydroxylase


phenylalanine --> tyrosine


NADH -> NAD+


Glutamine synthesis

multi-step:


glutamine synthetase



Glutamate --> γ-glutamyl phosphate


ATP -> ADP



γ-glutamyl phosphate --> Glutamine


NH4+ -> Pi

Asparagine synthesis

multi-step:


asparagine synthetase



aspartate --> acyl-adenylate intermediate


ATP -> PPi



acyl-adenylate int --> asparagine


NH4+ -> AMP

Serine synthesis

3-phosphoglycerate oxidized (OH converted to =O)



3-PG --> oxidized intermediate


NAD+ -> NADH



then undergoes aminotransferase rxn to produce 3-phosphoserine



intermediate --> 3-phosphoserine


Glu -> α-KG



3-phosphoserine undergoes phosphatase rxn


-hydrolyzes phosphate off to produce -OH



3-phosphoserine --> serine

3-phosphoglycerate

3-phosphoserine

Glycine synthesis

1 enzymatic step from serine



tetrahydrofolate (THF) is used to remove -CH2OH from serine


-THF is a cofactor that is involved in 1-carbon transfer rxns

Trp is a pre-cursor molecule for:

1. nicotinate


-a pre-cursor molecule for NAD and NADP



2. indoleacetate


-a plant growth factor



3. serotonin


-a neurotransmitter