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40 Cards in this Set

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All of the following are true of the endocrine system, except

a. releases chemicals into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body
b. releases hormones that alter the metabolic activities of many different tissues and organs simultaneously
c. produces effects that can last for hours, days and even longer
d. it produces very rapid responses that are always short lived
d. it produces very rapid responses that are always short lived
Endocrine cells

a. are a type of nerve cell
b. release their secretions onto an epithelial surface
c. release their secretions directly into body fluids
d. are modified connective tissue cells
c. release their secretions directly into body fluids
Hormones known as catecholamines are

a. lipids
b. peptides
c. steroids
d. derivatives of amino acids
d. derivatives of amino acids
Peptide hormones are

a. composed of amino acids
b. produced by cells in the adrenal glands
c. derived from the amino acid tyrosine
d. lipids
a. composed of amino acids
All of the following are true of steroid hormones except

a. are produced by the adrenal medulla
b. are structurally similar to cholesterol
c. are produced by reproductive glands
d. bind to receptors within cells
a. are produced by the adrenal medulla
Steroid hormones

a. are proteins
b. cannot diffuse through cell membranes
c. bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells
d. remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time
c. bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells
A cell's hormonal sensitivities are determined by the

a. chemical nature of the hormone
b. quantity of circulating hormone
c. shape of the hormone molecules
d. presence or absence of appropriate receptors
d. presence or absence of appropriate receptors
The most complex endocrine responses involve the

a. thyroid gland
b. pancreas
c. adrenal glands
d. hypothalamus
d. hypothalamus
Endocrine glands can be regulated by all of the following except

a. hormones from other endocrine glands
b. changes in the genetic makeup of certain hypothalamic cells
c. direct neural stimulation
d. changes in the composition of extracellular fluid
b. changes in the genetic makeup of certain hypothalamic cells
Changes in blood osmotic pressure would affect the levels of _____ in the blood.

a. ACTH
b. ADH
c. oxytocin
d. TSH
b. ADH
The hypothalamus controls secretions of the anterior pituitary by way of

a. direct neural stimulation
b. direct mechanical control
c. releasing and inhibiting hormones
d. altering ion concentration in the anterior pituitary
c. releasing and inhibiting hormones
The posterior pituitary gland secretes

a. FSH
b. ADH
c. ACTH
d. GH
b. ADH
The hormone oxytocin

a. promotes uterine contractions
b. is responsible for milk production in the mammary glands
c. regulates blood pressure
d. governs the ovarian cycle
a. promotes uterine contractions
Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

a. gonadotropins
b. prostaglandins
c. glucocorticoids
d. somatomedins
d. somatomedins
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

a. TSH
b. ACTH
c. FSH
d. LH
a. TSH
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is

a. TSH
b. ACTH
c. FSH
d. GH
b. ACTH
The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

a. TSH
b. ACTH
c. FSH
d. GH
c. FSH
The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

a. MSH
b. ACTH
c. FSH
d. LH
d. LH
The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include

a. decreased oxygen consumption
b. decreased heart rate
c. increased metabolic rate
d. decreased nutrient requirements
c. increased metabolic rate
Thyroid hormone contains the mineral

a. sodium
b. potassium
c. iron
d. iodine
d. iodine
The hormone that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of body temperature is

a. somatotropin
b. thyroxine
c. calcitonin
d. glucagon
b. thyroxine
The condition known as goiter can result from too

a. much insulin
b. much TSH
c. much ACTH
d. much iodine in the diet
b. much TSH
Increased levels of the hormone _____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.

a. thymosin
b. calcitonin
c. parathormone
d. aldosterone
c. parathormone
Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II in the

a. kidneys
b. liver
c. heart
d. lungs
d. lungs
The adrenal medulla produces

a. androgens
b. glucocorticoids
c. mineral corticoids
d. epinephrine
d. epinephrine
A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion concentration of the blood is

a. cortisol
b. parathormone
c. thymosin
d. aldosterone
d. aldosterone
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is

a. cortisol
b. insulin
c. glucagon
d. aldosterone
b. insulin
A hormone that promotes the conversion of lipids to glucose and the formation of glycogen in the liver is

a. aldosterone
b. erythropoietin
c. cortisol
d. parathormone
c. cortisol
When blood sugar levels fall

a. insulin is released
b. glucagon is released
c. ADH is released
d. FSH is released
b. glucagon is released
Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

a. epinephrine
b. norepinephrine
c. aldosterone
d. glucagon
c. aldosterone
The alpha cells of the pancreas produce

a. glucagon
b. insulin
c. aldosterone
d. epinephrine
a. glucagon
The pancreatic islets of Langerhans

a. contain endocrine cells
b. make up most of the pancreas
c. produce digestive enzymes
d. secrete alkaline juice
a. contain endocrine cells
The inability of the pancreas to produce insulin would result in

a. acromegaly
b. goiter
c. diabetes mellitus
d. diabetes insipidus
c. diabetes mellitus
Proper growth requires

a. thyroid hormone
b. gonadal hormones
c. insulin
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is

a. testosterone
b. cortisol
c. epinephrine
d. thyroxine
c. epinephrine
A rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following except

a. elevated blood pressure
b. increased retention of sodium ions at the kidney
c. increased blood volume
d. increased urine production
d. increased urine production
Which of the following symptoms would you not expect to observe in a person suffering from Type I diabetes mellitus?

a. glycosuria
b. ketoacidosis
c. decreased appetite
d. hyperglycemia
c. decreased appetite
Shelly has a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. The tumor is causing hypersecretion of a hormone that causes her to grow a beard and have extensive body hair. This tumor involves cells of the

a. adrenal cortex
b. adrenal medulla
c. pars intermedia
d. adrenal capsule
a. adrenal cortex
Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. The response of the target cells to each of these two hormones are exactly the opposite of each other. This information implies that

a. the two hormones bind to different cell surface receptors
b. one hormone binds to a receptor on the cell membrane and the other to an intracellular receptor
c. each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger
d. both hormones interact with receptors at the cell nucleus
c. each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger
The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by

a. exposure to too much sunlight
b. increased levels of melatonin
c. increased levels of MSH
d. increased levels of gonadotropins
b. increased levels of melatonin