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19 Cards in this Set

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How do the nervous systems of mammalian animals compare to those of non-mammalian animals?




What are some examples of non-mammalian developed nervous systems?

Non-mammalian nervous systems are less complex, even though they perform a similar function.




Jellyfish and fish are both animals that are not mammals but that have nervous systems of some kind.

Do fish have adrenal glands?




If not, what do they have instead?

They do not have adrenal glands.




They have adrenal cells, but they are scattered amid the kidney and through a vein running through the fish.

Give an example of an animal with a interesting adaption to their skeletal-muscle system.

The hummingbird has adaptions to their skeletal-muscle structure that allows them to beat their wings very quickly.

How do human lungs compare to fish gills and bird lungs in terms of efficiency?

Human lungs are the least efficient of the three. Bird lungs are better, because they need to be able to get oxygen at high elevation. Fish gills are the most efficient at collecting oxygen, because there is so little oxygen underwater.

What are the two largest branches of physiology?




How do they differ?

Comparative physiology and medical physiology.




Comparative physiology is the study of animals, not really from a medical point of view.


Medical physiology is done in hospitals, unis, etc. to deal with disease states in humans.

What is the August Krogh Principle?

That for any question in biology, there is an ideal model system.




For example, if we were studying hibernation, it would be ideal to study squirrels because they go deep into hibernation, as opposed to bears, who don't.

Comparative/animal physiology can be further divided into three types, or methods of study. What are they?

Mechanical physiology, which looks at all the physical elements of the animal.




Evolutionary, looks at how the animals changed as they went up the evolutionary ladder.




Environmental, looks at how the changing environment will affect different animals.

No matter what type of physiology we look at, we think of adaptive significance. What is that?

When we look at specific adaptations in the animal, we think about what the physiological mechanism developed to deal with.




Sometimes the adaptation is useful for different things than it was originally developed for.

What are structure - function relationships?




What is an example of one?

The role the structure has in aiding the role of the organ.




The gill, and how its shape contributes to its efficiency.

What is acclimatisation?




What is the relative time frame for acclimatisation?

It is physiological change when a person or animal is exposed to a given environment, for a relatively short time - weeks, months maybe.

What is adaptation, and what is its relative time frame?




Give an example of adaptation.

Adaptation is similar to acclimatisation, but it occurs on an evolutionary time frame, many many thousands of years.




Ruppell's Griffin is a good example, it has developed to be great at high altitude, because it has lived for generations at that high altitude.

What are feedback control systems?




Give an example of one.

Feedback is a physiological response to changing conditions to restore homeostasis.




How insulin increases to deal with blood sugar.

What is a feed forward control system?




What is an example?

It is a physiological response IN ANTICIPATION of changing conditions.




How insulin increases in preparation of increase in blood sugar.

What is conformity in a physiological system?

The internal level of any given variable - temperature, blood ion concentration, osmotic pressure - does not differ from that of the environment the animal is in.

What is regulation in a physiological system?

The internal body level of any given variable is kept at a value different from that of the environment the animal is in.

What is an example of an acute physiological change?




What is an example of a daily physiological change?




What is an example of developmental physiological change?

Our fight or flight response to danger, anything caused by the neural system.




Circadian rhythms are all daily, daily torpor is a daily fluctuation in body temp. and meta. rate.




How hemoglobin changes with age, fetal hemo. is different from adult hemo.

What is an example of evolutionary physiological change?




What is an example of chronic physiological change?

Any physiological adaption is an example of evolutionary physiological change.




Any acclimatisation is an example of chronic physiological change.

Name some particular underwater environments that can be challenging for fish.




Name some particular on ground environments that can be challenging for humans.

Low ion and low pH environments can be hard, so can high ion and high pH.




Cold temperatures can be hard, so can really hot. Lack of water is also difficult.

Why are hydrothermal vents considered an extreme environment?




Give an example of an animal that thrives in them.

There is barely any sunlight or oxygen, there is a ton of sulfur, there is rapidly circulating hot and cold water, and there is a ton of pressure.




The tube worm.