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30 Cards in this Set

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Pollinator mutualisms are special interactions involving ________, which receive food or a place to lay eggs, and ________, which receive pollen from others of their kind.




-insects; plants


-plants; insects


-parasites; plants


-predators; plants


-none of the above

insects; plants




In pollinator mutualisms, insects pollinate plants in exchange for food or other rewards.

In a mutualistic relationship, only the species directly involved benefit.




-True


-False

False




In addition to the species directly involved in a mutualistic relationship, other organisms may also benefit. For example, coral reefs result from the mutualistic relationship between corals and photosynthetic algae, and these reefs provide a home to many other organisms.

Warning coloration is a result of




-consumers placing selective pressure on a species.


-victims evolving faster than consumers.


-behavior changing the physiology of an organism.


-all of the above


-none of the above

consumers placing selective pressure on a species.




Those with warning coloration are less likely to get eaten, and their genes are passed on.

Group interaction is often an alteration of behavior to




-reduce selective pressures.


-avoid consumption by another species.


-speed character displacement.


-all of the above


-none of the above

avoid consumption by another species.




Groups have better detection and warning mechanisms than individuals do.

The level of competition between species depends on




-availability of resources.


-population density.


-group interaction of organisms.


-all of the above


-none of the above

all of the above




Limitation of resources and higher population density will result in greater competition among organisms. Group interactions may restrict or increase competition, depending on the circumstances.

Two species of Galápagos finches have very similar beak sizes on islands where only one species is found, but different beak sizes on islands where they are found together. This is an example of




-convergent evolution.


-character displacement.


-competitive fitness.


-ephemeral differences.


-all of the above

character displacement.




Character displacement is the altering of a character in areas of high competition so that other resources may be exploited.

Food chains differ from food webs in that




-food chains are a single sequence of who eats whom in a community.


-food webs represent the complex interactions among food chains.


-food chains better represent the entire community.


-both a and b


-both a and c

both a and b




The complex relationships among food chains are best described using a food web.

Keystone species are always predators.




-True


-False

False




Although some keystone species are predators, others are producers, herbivores, or pathogens.

“Secondary succession” refers to the second phase of succession that occurs after a disaster.




-True


-False

False




Secondary succession refers to the recolonization of an area after a disturbance.

Lizards on a chain of islands prefer to eat the berries of the Make-Believe bush. Two species of lizards compete for this resource. It is noticed that on Fantasy Island the two species of lizards differ in the length of their legs, with one species grazing on berries at the bottom of the bush and the other species grazing on the top of the bush. However, on the other two islands of the chain, where only one or the other species is present, they appear to have legs of the same length. This is an example of




-character development.


-character displacement.


-character morphogenesis.


-all of the above


-none of the above

character displacement.




These similar species show divergence of characters as a result of competition.

Mutualism is rare in nature.




-True


-False

False

Which of the following can occur when the climate of an area changes?




-Natural selection usually causes the community to adapt and survive the change with little visible effect.


-That area becomes uninhabitable to all species and is abandoned.


-That community may relocate to an area with a climate similar to that of the original location.


-Continental drift restores communities to climates similar to those from which the communities came.

That community may relocate to an area with a climate similar to that of the original location.

In seed-dispersal mutualism, plants produce _____ to entice consumers to disperse the plant’s seeds.




-attractive aromas


-fleshy fruits


-edible pollen


-nectar

fleshy fruits

Communities never recover from disturbances caused by humans.




-True


-False

False

Pollinators carry seeds in their digestive tracts and later deposit them far from the plant that they fed on.




-True


-False

False

Which of the following choices best explains, from an ecological perspective, why there are laws that require a wildlife survey before certain building or other land-use projects may proceed?




-If a keystone species is found, it can be moved to another area where it will establish a new community of organisms.


-If the only local habitat for a keystone species is disturbed, the entire community of populations will be affected.


-If the species are surveyed before the land is used, they will all be more likely to survive the building project.


-If the species are surveyed before the land is used, they will all be more easily distributed to other habitats.

If the only local habitat for a keystone species is disturbed, the entire community of populations will be affected.

Which of the following animals would be most likely to simultaneously participate in seed dispersal and a gut inhabitant mutualism?




-wolves


-rattlesnakes


-scorpions


-deer

deer

A farmer and his family raise 100 acres of corn, 12 chickens, and 2 cows. What is the keystone species?




-corn


-chickens


-cows


-people

people

If initially present, a climax community will reform immediately after a habitat disturbance.




-True


-False

False

During _____ a newly created habitat is inhabited.




-primary succession


-climax community formation


-disturbance colonization


-keystone recovery

primary succession

Which of the following statements about temperature regulation is false?




-All organisms maintain the same core temperature.


-Some organisms maintain a constant core temperature even when the external environment changes.


-Some organisms’ core temperatures vary when the external environment varies.


-Different organisms may have different core temperatures at which they do well.

All organisms maintain the same core temperature.

In a nephron the filtrate is derived from blood plasma.




-True


-False

True

Urea is reabsorbed by the kidney because it acts as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damaging chemicals produced by metabolic reactions.




-True


-False

True

How might air conditioning reduce the number of deaths resulting from heat waves?




-When a person is standing in front of the air conditioner, the air blowing out replaces the warmer air next to the person’s body, allowing conduction, radiation, and evaporation to be more efficient at removing heat from the body.


-In a cooler room, the temperature difference between a person’s body and the air is larger than it is when a person is sitting outside on a hot day. As a result, heat is lost faster in an air-conditioned room.


-As air conditioning acts to lower the body temperature, less water is lost from a person’s body through evaporation, preventing dehydration.


-all of the above

all of the above

After viewing the image below, one should conclude that




-the image is that of a tissue made of multiple organs.


-the image is that of an organ made of multiple tissues.


-cells are large and create large organs.


-only one type of tissue can make up a specific organ.

the image is that of an organ made of multiple tissues.

Heat can be gained or lost by radiation.




-True


-False

True


Anesthesia is used in many types of surgeries because it can




-block nerve impulses transmitted to the spinal cord or brain, thus eliminating sensory perceptions.


-tingle nerve endings that disrupt patient concentration.


-make nerve cells hyperactive and increase sensory perception, thus causing numbness.


-be used as a sedative.

block nerve impulses transmitted to the spinal cord or brain, thus eliminating sensory perceptions.

Aerobic exercise generates body heat primarily due to muscle contractions.




-True


-False

True

Animal A has a surface area of 6 cm2 and a volume of 1 cm3. Animal B has a surface area of 24 cm2 and a volume of 8 cm3. If each animal were in the same environment,




-animals A and B would gain and lose solutes at the same rate, but animal A would gain heat faster.


-animal B would gain water faster than animal A, but animal A would lose solutes faster.


-animal A would gain or lose heat, water, and solutes faster than animal B.


-animal B would lose heat faster than animal A but gain water faster.

animal A would gain or lose heat, water, and solutes faster than animal B.

A person whose hands are being warmed by holding a hot cup of tea is gaining heat by




-convection.


-conduction.


-evaporation.


-radiation.

conduction.