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38 Cards in this Set

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Equisetum (horsetail) stem cross-section


Where is the vascular tissue located in the Equisetum stem?

Equisetum - Horsetail


Where is the strobilus located?

Equisetum (horsetail) fossil


How do these fossils compare to live equisetum samples?

Live marchantia


What is the green "leafy" structure and its ploidy?


What anchors the marchantia to the soil?

Rhizoids = root-like structures on the thallus, anchor to the soil


Rhizoids = root-like structures on the thallus, anchor to the soil

Live true fern


Locate the blade, pinnae, stalk, rhizome, fiddlehead


Note: indusium, sori

Sori = dark spots on underside of fronds
Indusium = waxy covering over sori

Sori = dark spots on underside of fronds


Indusium = waxy covering over sori

Lycopodium strobilus xs


Where are the sporangia of Lycopodium found? What do these leaf-life structures cluster into?

Sporangia of Lycopodium are found on modified leaves called sporophylls, clustered into cone-like strobili.

Sporangia of Lycopodium are found on modified leaves called sporophylls, clustered into cone-like strobili.

Live lycopodium


Identify sporophylls, strobilus

Live selaginella

Live psilotum


Psilutom = whisk fern
Bilateral branching pattern
Sporangia located at branch points (round objects)

Psilutom = whisk fern


Bilateral branching pattern


Sporangia located at branch points (round objects)

Marchantia thallus cross-section


Identify rhozoids, air pores

Not very thick
Rhizoids = anchor structure, lower surface
Air pores = gas exchange, upper surface

Not very thick


Rhizoids = anchor structure, lower surface


Air pores = gas exchange, upper surface

Marchantia gemmae

Gemmae are held in gemmaecups, where they can be splashed out by rainwater. If they land on moist soil, they will develop into new gametophytes.

Gemmae are held in gemmaecups, where they can be splashed out by rainwater. If they land on moist soil, they will develop into new gametophytes.

Marchantia archegonium + archegoniophore


- What is the difference? What shown here is which?


- General name for archegonia + antheridia?


- Ploidy & how are they produced from the gametophyte?

- The gametophyte produces multicellular gametangia by mitosis (n --> n); gametes are produced in gametangia
- Archegoniophore = stalk holding up archegonium

- The gametophyte produces multicellular gametangia by mitosis (n --> n); gametes are produced in gametangia


- Archegoniophore = stalk holding up archegonium

Marchantia archegonium, 400x


- What is the gamete contained here?

Marchantia antheridium + antheridiophore


- Ploidy


- Which gamete is contained here & how is it formed from the gametangia?

- Haploid (n)
- Flagellated sperm is formed here by mitosis within the antheridium

- Haploid (n)


- Flagellated sperm is formed here by mitosis within the antheridium

Marchantia antheridium, 400x

Marchantia sporophyte


- Identify capsule and contents


- Identify stalk, foot


- Ploidy

- Foot attaches sporophyte to gametophyte
- Stalk emerges from foot, holding capsule containing spores & elaters (which aid in dispersal)
- Spores + sporophyte are 2n

- Foot attaches sporophyte to gametophyte


- Stalk emerges from foot, holding capsule containing spores & elaters (which aid in dispersal)


- Spores + sporophyte are 2n

Mnium protonema


- Position in mnium life cycle?

Moss antheridium

Moss archegonium + archegoniophore with "head"

Moss archegonium, 400x, with egg

Moss sporophyte


- Ploidy?


- Identify capsule, foot

- Seta = stalk connecting sporophyte to gametophyte
- Foot = connection point between sporophyte and gametophyte
- Ploidy = 2n

- Seta = stalk connecting sporophyte to gametophyte


- Foot = connection point between sporophyte and gametophyte


- Ploidy = 2n

Moss gametophyte + sporophyte


- Identify gametophyte and sporophyte


- Identify seta

- Seta = stalk connecting sporophyte to gametophyte

- Seta = stalk connecting sporophyte to gametophyte

Peat moss


- Species name?

- Sphangum

- Sphangum

Flowchart for Nonvascular/Seedless Vascular Plants

Kingdom Plantae

Contains four natural groups:


- Bryophytes (nonvascular)


- Manilophytes (seedless vascular)


- Gymnosperms (seeds)


- Angiosperms (flowers)

Bryophytes

- Nonvascular plants


- Demonstrate alternation of generations with a dominant gametophyte


- Contains three phyla: Bryophyta (mosses), Hepaticophyta (liverworts), Anthoceraphyta (hornworts)

Gametangia

- Gametangia are multicellular, haploid structures produced by gametophytes in which gametes are produced


- Can be male (antheridium) or female (archegonium)


- If supported by stalks, the stalks are dubbed antheridiophores and archegoniophores, respectively

Phylum Hepaticophyta

- Kingdom Plantae


- Group Bryophytes


- Two variations: Thallose and leafy


Ex: Marchantia (thallose)

Marchantia

- Kingdom Plantae


- Bryophytes


- Phylum Hepaticophyta (liverworts)


- Produces both sexually (alt. of generations with distinctive gametangia) and asexually (gemmaecups)


- Thallus has rhizoids and air pores

Phylum Anthocerophyta

- Kingdom Plantae


- Bryophytes


- Phylum Anthocerophyta (hornworts)


- Distinctive for their long, horn-shaped sporophytes which typically emerge from a flat thallus

Phylum Bryophyta

- Kingdom Plantae


- Bryophytes


- Phylum Bryophyta (mosses)


- Reproduce sexually (alt. of generation)


- Gametophytes bud from protonema

Manilophytes

- Kingdom Plantae


- Seedless vascular plants


- Contains two phyla: Lycophyta and Manilophyta


- Megaphylls (large leaves with veins) and microphylls (small leaves, one vein)


- All manilophytes have sporophytes; spore-producing leaves

Phylum Lycophyta

- Kingdom Plantae


- Manilophytes


- Club mosses


- Reproduce asexually via rhizomes


Ex: Lycopodium, selaginella

Phylum Manilophyta

- Kingdom Plantae


- Manilophytes


- Contains three groups: true ferns (pteropsida), whisk ferns (psilopsida), and horsetails (sphenopsida)

Pteropsida

- True ferns (Plantae, Manilophytes, Manilophyta)


- Sporophyte dominant alt. of generations; asexual reproduction through rhizome


- Sporangia grouped into structures called sori, covered by an indusium


- Heart-shaped gametophytes called prothalli


Ex: Living ferns in lab

Fern prothallus


- Identify antheridia and archegonia


- Life stage/ploidy?

Psilopsida

- Whisk ferns (Plantae, Manilophytes, Manilophyta)


- Homosporous; no male/female spores or gametophytes


Ex: Psilotum

Sphenopsida

- Horsetails (Plantae, Manilophytes, Manilophyta)


- Much larger in prehistoric times; a major component of ancient "forests"


- Produce spores on sporophylls, which cluster together into a cone at the top called a strobilus


Ex: Equisetum