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54 Cards in this Set

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Genetics

Study of hereditary material

Genome

All the genetic material of the cell

Semiconservative replication

Where the parent strand is split into two, and a new strand is attached to each

Transcription

First step in going from genes to proteins, where a gene is copied into mRNA

Translation

Where code from mRNA is decoded to a sequence of amino acids for a polypeptide bond

mRNA

Messanger rna, go from DNA to the ribosome

Codon

A group of 3 bases that specify a particular amino acid

Degeneracy

The process of having multiple codons for each amino acid

Charged tRNA

A molecule that has an amino acid bound to it

Ribosome binding site

The EPA sites, where translation starts


E = exit site


P = peptide bond site


A = site of entry for tRNA

Peptidyl transferase

An enzyme on the ribosome that forms peptide bonds between amino acids in translation

Missense mutation

Caused by base substitution

Frameshift mutation

Caused by base addition or deletion

Nonsense mutation

Caused by base substitution

Genotype

Genetic makeup of an organism

Phenotype

Observable traits an organism has

Mutation

Change in the genetic makeup of an organism

Horizontal gene transfer

In bacteria, swapping of genetic material between individuals independent of reproduction

Vertical gene transfer

Transfer of genetic material from parent to offspring, sexual or asexual

Plasmids

Small self-replicating, Circular pieces of extra-chromosomal DNA

Hyperthermophiles

Organism that can live in extremely hot environments

Thermophiles

Organisms that live in extremely high temperatures

Mesophiles

Organisms that live in moderate temperatures

Psychrotrophs

Bacteria that live in extreme cold

Acidophiles

Extremely tolerant of low pH

Obligate halophiles

Organisms that have adapted to and require high salt environments

Facultative halophiles

Organisms that live in high salt concentration, but doesn't have to

Superoxide dismutase

Catalyzes -O2 + -O2 2H+ == H2O2 + O2

Catalase

Deals with peroxide, catalyzes -2H2O2 == 2H2O + O2

Culture media

Allows growth of organisms in a lab with controlled conditions

Inoculation

When bacteria is introduced to a media

Inoculum

The bacteria used in a media

Culture

The breeding of bacteria

Complex media

We do not know everything in it, or how much there is

Chemically defined media

We know everything that is in it and how much

Agar

Complex polysaccharide derived from marine algae

Reduced media

Media which has no oxygen

Incubator

An oven like creation

Anaerobic jar

Small vessels which can add CO2 as well as remove O2

Pure culture

A culture with one type of bacteria

Selective media

Encourages the growth of one organism

Differential media

Allows for one microbe to be differentiated from others grown on the plate

Enrichment media

Increases the number of target bacteria to be cultured

Generation time

Time required for one cell to divide and become two

Log phase

Cells are actively dividing in exponential format

Lag phase

Occurs when cells are first inoculated and are adjusting to the culture

Stationary phase

Nutrients run out, waste builds up, pH will change, cells begin to die and growth slows

Death phase

Toxicity of media increases and death becomes more rampant than growth

Pour plating

Where a sample is combined with molten agar and poured into a plate

Spread plating

Sample of bacteria is spread over solidified agar

Snap freezing

Culture is combined with antifreeze

Lyphilization

A culture is put in a tube and snap frozen

Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)

Layer of secreted DNA, proteins and polysaccharides

Biofilms

A thin, slimy film of bacteria that adheres to a surface