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40 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Which element commonly has only a proton as its nucleus?
hydrogen
If an atom loses an electron, it becomes a __________.
positively charged cation
The weakest bond between two atoms is the ________ bond.
hydrogen
Ionic bonds are formed when
electrons are completely transferred from one atom to another
The reaction N₂ + 3 H₂ → 2 NH₃ is an example of a(n)
synthesis reaciton
Which of the following statements concerning enzymes is false?
A. enzymes are consumed during a reaction
B. enzymes are proteins
C. enzymes function as biological catalysts
D. enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction
A. enzymes are consumed during a reaction
Before an enzyme can work, a __________ molecule must bind at the __________ site.
substrate; active
__________ is an example of an inorganic substance.
Carbon dioxide
Oppositely charged ions in solution are prevented from combining by
hydration spheres
Nonpolar organic molecules are good examples of
hydrophobic compounds
Which of the following substances would be most acidic?
A. urine, pH = 6
B. lemon juice, pH = 2
C. white wine, pH = 3
D. tomato juice, pH = 4
E. stomach secretions, pH = 1
stomach secretions, pH = 1
A(n) ________ removes hydrogen ions and a(n) ________ releases hydrogen ions.
base; acid
A polysaccharide that is formed in liver and muscle cells to store glucose is
glycogen
Which of the following is/are needed to form a triglyceride molecule?
1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules
A peptide bond links __________.
two amino acids
Interaction between individual polypeptide chains to form a protein complex is ________ structure.
quarternary
__________ molecules store and process genetic information.
nucleic acid
A nucleotide consists of
a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate group
Adenine and guanine are
purines represented by A and G.
The letter "P" in the name of the energy molecule ATP stands for __________.
phosphate
__________ are the smallest stable units of ordinary matter.
atoms
Ions with a + charge are called
cations
When atoms complete their outer electron shell by sharing electrons, they form
covalent bonds
The reaction symbolized as (AB → A + B) is a(n) _________ reaction.
decomposition
The first step in an enzymatic reaction is the binding of the __________ molecule to the active site.
substrate
Which of the following statements about water is true?
a. water is a good solvent
b. water comprises the largest portion of total body weight
c. water is composed of polar molecules
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Hydrophilic molecules readily associate with
water molecules
A solution containing more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions is __________.
acidic
If a substance has a pH that is greater than 7, it is
alkaline
Of the following choices, the pH of the least acidic solution is
a. 1.0
b. 4.5
c. 6.0
d. 2.3
e. 12.0
e. 12.0
The group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a
carbohydrate
When two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration synthesis,
a disaccharide is formed
The alpha-helix is an example of the __________ level of protein structure.
secondary
Substrate molecules bind to enzymes at the ________ sites.
active
You would expect a peptide bond to link
two amino acids
The alpha-helix and pleated sheet are examples of ________ protein structure.
secondary
A __________ is to a nucleic acid as an amino acid is to a polypeptide.
nucleotide
The structure of RNA differs from DNA in that
the backbone of RNA contains ribose
Identify the product formed from the phosphorylation of ADP.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The nucleus of an atom consists of
protons + neutrons