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36 Cards in this Set

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What are three overlapping functions the nervous system perform?

sensory input


integration


motor output



Sensory input

receive information from receptors. (blood pressure receptors, stepping on a nail (detect changes in the body.)



Neural integration

process incoming information and determine appropriate response ( the CNS)



Motor Output

send commands to effectors that carry out the bodys responses.

Two Major anatomical subdivisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System


Peripheral Nervous System

Central Nervous System

brain and spinal cord, enclosed body coverings, neurons carry info in bundles called tracts.



Peripheral Nervous System

nerve


ganglion



Nerve

bundle of axons in connective tissue

Ganglion

knotlike swelling of cell bodies in a nerve


*motor nerves carry info out to effector/target organs


*sensory nerves carry from sensory receptors into the CNS.

Sensory ( afferent) Division


(RECEPTORS TO CNS)

Visceral sensory division


Somatic sensory division

Visceral Sensroy Division

carries sensory info from visceral organs



Somatic sensory Division

carries sensory info from skin, muscles, bones and joints

Motor (efferent) DIvision


(CNS TO EFFECTORS)

somatic motor divison


autonomic nervous system

somatic motor divison

carries signals to skeletal muscles, under voluntary control



Autonomic Nervous System

carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle under involuntary control

Three functional types of neurons

-motor neurons


-sensory neurons


-interneurons



parts of the neuron

-soma


-dendrites


-axon



soma

cell body = perikaryon contains the nucleus and most other organelles



dendrites

receives inputs from other neurons, receptive end of the neuron

axon

conduct electrical signals down to their end, the axon terminal

myelinated axons

makes the signal travel faster

Schwann Cells

from the myelin sheaths on axons in the PNS

oligodendrocytes

form myelin sheaths on axons in the CNS

astocytes

form the blood brain barrier cover entire brain grey matter

microglia

phagocytes that clean up the nervous tissue

ependymal cells

produce cerebral spinal fluid

Satellite cells

unknown function found only in the PNS

hyperpolarized

not excited cells.

depolarization (excited state)

a reduction in the resting membrane potential when the inside of the cell becomes more positive. occurs when voltage gated channels like Na+ channel open



hyper-polarization ( inhibited state)

an increase in the resting membrane potential when the inside of the cells becomes more negative. this occurs when voltage gated channels like K+ channels open.

repolarization

due to the opening of K+ channels and the efflux of K+ ions



Electrical Synapse

cells are connected by gap junctions, intracellular channels, that allow ions to flow from one cell to another, allows or rapid electrical transmission between cells, mainly found in the invertebrate.

Chemical Synapse

a chemical (neurotransimmter) is released from the presynaptic neuron and diffuses across a small space to control the activity of the post synaptic cell.

4 types of Neurotransmitters

-acetylcholine


-amino acid transmitters


-monoamines


-neuropeptides

acetylcholine

formed from acetic acid and choline

monoamines

catecholamines (epi, NE, and dopamine)


indolamines (serotonin and histamine)