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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What are three overlapping functions the nervous system perform?

sensory input


motor output

Sensory input

receive information from receptors. (blood pressure receptors, stepping on a nail (detect changes in the body.)

Neural integration

process incoming information and determine appropriate response ( the CNS)

Motor Output

send commands to effectors that carry out the bodys responses.

Two Major anatomical subdivisions of the Nervous System

Central Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System

Central Nervous System

brain and spinal cord, enclosed body coverings, neurons carry info in bundles called tracts.

Peripheral Nervous System




bundle of axons in connective tissue


knotlike swelling of cell bodies in a nerve

*motor nerves carry info out to effector/target organs

*sensory nerves carry from sensory receptors into the CNS.

Sensory ( afferent) Division


Visceral sensory division

Somatic sensory division

Visceral Sensroy Division

carries sensory info from visceral organs

Somatic sensory Division

carries sensory info from skin, muscles, bones and joints

Motor (efferent) DIvision


somatic motor divison

autonomic nervous system

somatic motor divison

carries signals to skeletal muscles, under voluntary control

Autonomic Nervous System

carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle and smooth muscle under involuntary control

Three functional types of neurons

-motor neurons

-sensory neurons


parts of the neuron





cell body = perikaryon contains the nucleus and most other organelles


receives inputs from other neurons, receptive end of the neuron


conduct electrical signals down to their end, the axon terminal

myelinated axons

makes the signal travel faster

Schwann Cells

from the myelin sheaths on axons in the PNS


form myelin sheaths on axons in the CNS


form the blood brain barrier cover entire brain grey matter


phagocytes that clean up the nervous tissue

ependymal cells

produce cerebral spinal fluid

Satellite cells

unknown function found only in the PNS


not excited cells.

depolarization (excited state)

a reduction in the resting membrane potential when the inside of the cell becomes more positive. occurs when voltage gated channels like Na+ channel open

hyper-polarization ( inhibited state)

an increase in the resting membrane potential when the inside of the cells becomes more negative. this occurs when voltage gated channels like K+ channels open.


due to the opening of K+ channels and the efflux of K+ ions

Electrical Synapse

cells are connected by gap junctions, intracellular channels, that allow ions to flow from one cell to another, allows or rapid electrical transmission between cells, mainly found in the invertebrate.

Chemical Synapse

a chemical (neurotransimmter) is released from the presynaptic neuron and diffuses across a small space to control the activity of the post synaptic cell.

4 types of Neurotransmitters


-amino acid transmitters




formed from acetic acid and choline


catecholamines (epi, NE, and dopamine)

indolamines (serotonin and histamine)