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26 Cards in this Set

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ATP :: Adenosine Triphosphate
a free-floating molecule found in cells that acts like a rechargeable battery which temporarily stores energy that can then be used for cellular work in plants, animals, bacteria, and all the other organisms on earth.
biofuel
fuels produced from plant and animal products
Cellular Respiration
Requires FUEL and OXYGEN. Potential energy stored in chemical bonds of sugar, protein, and fat molecules. Breaks bonds to release the high-energy electrons contained in ATP. Oxygen is electron magnet.
Chemical energy
The storage of energy in chemical bonds [FIG 4.4 p.133]
Energy
The capacity to do work
Ethanol
Acetaldehyde's acceptance of NADH's electrons results in production of ethanol. The molecule that give beer, wine, and spirits their kick. Can also be used as a fuel source because it can be combusted in much the same was as the biofuels generated from animal fats and plant oils.
Fermentation
Process by which cell respiration occurs in the absence of oxygen.
First law of thermodynamics
Energy can never be created or destroyed. It can only change from one form to another.
Fossil Fuel
Produced from the decayed remains of plants and animals modified over millions of years by heat, pressure, and bacteria. e.g oil, natural gas, and coal
Glycolysis
splitting of sugar; sequence of chemical reactions through which glucose is broken down, resulting in to molecules of pyruvate.
Kinetic Energy
Energy of moving objects
Krebs Cycle
breaks down products of glycolysis,
Light Energy
type of kinetic energy, made up of photons organized in wave
Mitochondrial matrix
3rd step of cellular respiration

FIG 4-33 p.156
NADPH
high energy electron carrier
Photon
a quantum of electromagnetic radiation
Photosynthesis
process by which plants capture energy form the sun and store it in the chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules they make
Photosystem
functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons.
Pigment
light-absorbing molecules
Potential Energy
A capacity to do work that results from the location or position of an object e.g. food
Pyruvate
one result of glycolysis.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat.
Stoma
small pores, usually on the underside of a leaf
Thermodynamics
study of the transformation of energy from one type to another e.g. potential to kinetic
Work
Moving matter against an opposing force
Energy tax
Every time energy is converted form one form to another the conversion isn't perfectly efficient. Some of the energy is always converted to the least usable form of kinetic energy: heat.