Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/38

Click to flip

38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evolution of bilateral body plans was accompanied by cephalization, which means having a _____.
head
The central nervous system is differentiated from the peripheral nervous system because the CNS encompasses the ________ and the PNS encompasses the ________.
brain and spinal cord/cranial and spinal nerves
Input of information to neurons is usually through ________.
the cell body or dendrites
Sodium-potassium pumps move positively-charged sodium ions out of the cell and bring positively-charged potassium ions in. What effect does this have on the resting membrane potential of the cell?
The membrane potential becomes negative inside because three Na+ exit for every two K+ that enter.
The instant that the threshold is reached in the trigger zone of a neuron, then gated ________ channels open, allowing the ions to stream ________.
Na+ / into the cell
The concentration of ions is restored to normal after an action potential by the ________ pump.
sodium/potassium
The gap between the output region of one neuron and the input region of an adjacent neuron or muscle cell is called a ________.
synaptic cleft
Which of these neurotransmitters induces skeletal muscle contraction?
acetylcholine
What are some of the effects of long-tern addiction to cocaine?
only cocaine can bring about a sense of pleasure
causes high blood pressure and risk of stroke or heart attack;
results in widespread reduction of brain activity
All major addictive drugs stimulate the release of ________.
dopamine
Which neuroglial cells produce the myelin sheath?
Schwann cells
Which neuron types are required for a reflex arc?
motor neurons and sensory neurons
What are the are responses to sympathetic outflow?
Hear rate increases
Pupils of eyes dialate
Glandular secretions descrease in airways to the lungs
Salivary gland secretions thicken
Stomach and intestinal movements slow down
Sphincters contract
What are the components of the gray matter in the spinal cord?
Cell bodies
Dendrites
Unsheathed axons of neurons and neuroglia
Which parts of the human brain is most involved in regulating heartbeat, respiration, and other essential tasks?
medulla oblongata
Which of the following substances cannot breach the blood-brain barrier?
urea
The largest area of the primary motor cortex is devoted to processing signals from the ________.
face and hands
Which funcions involve the limbic system?
emotions
memory
olfaction
The most abundant cells in the brain are ________.
astrocytes
What are some characteristics of nerve growth factors?
Stimulates neurons to form additional synapses
Is secreted from one cell in order to bind to receptors on target cells
Does not cause most nerve cells to divide
_____ relay messages from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands.
Motor neurons
When a neuron is at rest, _____.
the sodium-potassium pump is operating
Action potentials occur when _____.
A neuron receives adequate stimulation
More and more sodium gates open
Neurotransmitters are released by _____.
axon endings
The most abundant cells in the brain are _____.
astrocytes
Skeletal muscles are controlled by _____.
somatic nerves
When you sit quietly on the couch and read, output from the _____ system prevails.
parasympathetic
Skeletal muscles contract in response to
ACh
The cerebrum is part of the _____.
forebrain
start of brain, spinal cord
neural tube
connects the hemispheres
corpus callosum
protects the brain and spinal cord from some toxins
blood-brain barrier
type of signaling molecule
neurotransmitter
support team for neurons
neuroglia
stetch-sensitive receptor
muscle spindle
roles in emotion, memory
limbic system
most complex integration
cerebral cortex
unmyelinated axons and cell bodies
gray matter